Volume 619, November 2018
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||16 November 2018|
Activity induced variation in spin-orbit angles as derived from Rossiter–McLaughlin measurements
Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August Universität Göttingen,
2 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
3 University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
4 Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, Bat. B5C, 4000 Liège, Belgium
5 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
6 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
7 IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC University Paris 6, PSL Research University, Paris, France
8 Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina
9 CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina
10 Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
11 Hamburg Observatory, Hamburg University, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
12 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
13 Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Accepted: 17 August 2018
One of the most powerful methods used to estimate sky-projected spin-orbit angles of exoplanetary systems is through a spectroscopic transit observation known as the RossiterMcLaughlin (RM) effect. So far mostly single RM observations have been used to estimate the spin-orbit angle, and thus there have been no studies regarding the variation of estimated spin-orbit angle from transit to transit. Stellar activity can alter the shape of photometric transit light curves and in a similar way they can deform the RM signal. In this paper we present several RM observations, obtained using the HARPS spectrograph, of known transiting planets that all transit extremely active stars, and by analyzing them individually we assess the variation in the estimated spin-orbit angle. Our results reveal that the estimated spin-orbit angle can vary significantly (up to ~42°) from transit to transit, due to variation in the configuration of stellar active regions over different nights. This finding is almost two times larger than the expected variation predicted from simulations. We could not identify any meaningful correlation between the variation of estimated spin-orbit angles and the stellar magnetic activity indicators. We also investigated two possible approaches to mitigate the stellar activity influence on RM observations. The first strategy was based on obtaining several RM observations and folding them to reduce the stellar activity noise. Our results demonstrated that this is a feasible and robust way to overcome this issue. The second approach is based on acquiring simultaneous high-precision short-cadence photometric transit light curves using TRAPPIST/SPECULOOS telescopes, which provide more information about the stellar active region’s properties and allow a better RM modeling.
Key words: planets and satellites: fundamental parameters / planets and satellites: detection / stars: activity / starspots / techniques: radial velocities / techniques: photometric
© ESO 2018
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