The evolved fast rotator Sargas
Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, UMR7293 Lagrange, 28 Av. Valrose, 06108
Nice Cedex 2, France
2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
3 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse, France
4 CNRS, IRAP, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
5 University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Accepted: 13 September 2018
Context. Gravity darkening (GD) and flattening are important consequences of stellar rotation. The precise characterization of these effects across the Hertzsprung–Russell (H-R) diagram is crucial to a deeper understanding of stellar structure and evolution.
Aims. We seek to characterize such important effects on Sargas (θ Scorpii), an evolved, fast-rotating, intermediate-mass (∼5 M⊙) star, located in a region of the H-R diagram where they have never been directly measured as far as we know.
Methods. We use our numerical model CHARRON to analyze interferometric (VLTI/PIONIER) and spectroscopic (VLT/UVES) observations through a MCMC model-fitting procedure. The visibilities and closure phases from the PIONIER data are particularly sensitive to rotational flattening and GD. Adopting the Roche approximation, we investigate two GD models: (1) the β-model (Teff ∝ geff β), which includes the classical von Zeipel’s GD law, and (2) the ω-model, where the flux is assumed to be anti-parallel to geff.
Results. Using this approach we measure several physical parameters of Sargas, namely, equatorial radius, mass, equatorial rotation velocity, mean Teff, inclination and position angle of the rotation axis, and β. In particular, we show that the measured β leads to a surface flux distribution equivalent to the one given by the ω-model. Thanks to our results, we also show that Sargas is most probably located in a rare and interesting region of the H-R diagram: within the Hertzsprung gap and over the hot edge of the instability strip (equatorial regions inside it and polar regions outside it because of GD).
Conclusions. These results show once more the power of optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry, combined with high-resolution spectroscopy, to directly measure fast-rotation effects and stellar parameters, in particular GD. As was the case for a few fast rotators previously studied by interferometry, the ω-model provides a physically more profound description of Sargas’ GD, without the need of a β exponent. It will also be interesting to further investigate the implications of the singular location of such a fast rotator as Sargas in the H-R diagram.
Key words: stars: individual: Sargas / stars: rotation / stars: massive / methods: numerical / methods: observational / techniques: interferometric
Based on observations performed at ESO, Chile under program IDs 097.D-0230(ABC) and 266.D-5655(A).
The OIFits files with the VLTI/PIONIER data that we used are publicly available at the JMMC OIDB website service: http://oidb.jmmc.fr/index.html
© ESO 2018