Three-dimensional simulations of solar magneto-convection including effects of partial ionization⋆
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
2 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Accepted: 9 July 2018
In recent decades, REALISTIC three-dimensional radiative-magnetohydrodynamic simulations have become the dominant theoretical tool for understanding the complex interactions between the plasma and magnetic field on the Sun. Most of such simulations are based on approximations of magnetohydrodynamics, without directly considering the consequences of the very low degree of ionization of the solar plasma in the photosphere and bottom chromosphere. The presence of a large amount of neutrals leads to a partial decoupling of the plasma and magnetic field. As a consequence, a series of non-ideal effects, i.e., the ambipolar diffusion, Hall effect, and battery effect, arise. The ambipolar effect is the dominant in the solar chromosphere. We report on the first three-dimensional realistic simulations of magneto-convection including ambipolar diffusion and battery effects. The simulations are carried out using the newly developed MANCHA3Dcode. Our results reveal that ambipolar diffusion causes measurable effects on the amplitudes of waves excited by convection in the simulations, on the absorption of Poynting flux and heating, and on the formation of chromospheric structures. We provide a low limit on the chromospheric temperature increase owing to the ambipolar effect using the simulations with battery-excited dynamo fields.
Key words: Sun: photosphere / Sun: chromosphere / Sun: magnetic fields / methods: numerical
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