Volume 617, September 2018
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||25 September 2018|
Toward a new paradigm for Type II migration
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Bd de l’Observatoire,
06304 Nice Cedex 4,
2 Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75005 Paris, France
Accepted: 15 July 2018
Context. Giant planets open gaps in their protoplanetary and subsequently suffer so-called type II migration. Schematically, planets are thought to be tightly locked within their surrounding disks, and forced to follow the viscous advection of gas onto the central star. This fundamental principle, however, has recently been questioned as migrating planets were shown to decouple from the gas’ radial drift.
Aims. In this framework, we question whether the traditionally used linear scaling of migration rate of a giant planet with the disk’s viscosity still holds. Additionally, we assess the role of orbit-crossing material as part of the decoupling mechanism.
Methods. We have performed 2D (r, θ) numerical simulations of point-mass planets embedded in locally isothermal α-disks in steady-state accretion, with various values of α. Arbitrary planetary accretion rates were used as a means to diminish or nullify orbit-crossing flows.
Results. We confirm that the migration rate of a gap-opening planet is indeed proportional to the disk’s viscosity, but is not equal to the gas drift speed in the unperturbed disk. We show that the role of gap-crossing flows is in fact negligible.
Conclusions. From these observations, we propose a new paradigm for type II migration: a giant planet feels a torque from the disk that promotes its migration, while the gap profile relative to the planet is restored on a viscous timescale, thus limiting the planet migration rate to be proportional to the disk’s viscosity. Hence, in disks with low viscosity in the planet region, type II migration should still be very slow.
Key words: protoplanetary disks – planet–disk interactions – planets and satellites: formation
© ESO 2018
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