Volume 615, July 2018
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||23 July 2018|
How much does turbulence change the pebble isolation mass for planet formation?
University of Bern, Physics Institute, Space Research and Planetary Sciences,
2 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France
Accepted: 24 March 2018
Context. When a planet becomes massive enough, it gradually carves a partial gap around its orbit in the protoplanetary disk. A pressure maximum can be formed outside the gap where solids that are loosely coupled to the gas, typically in the pebble size range, can be trapped. The minimum planet mass for building such a trap, which is called the pebble isolation mass (PIM), is important for two reasons: it marks the end of planetary growth by pebble accretion, and the trapped dust forms a ring that may be observed with millimetre observations.
Aims. We study the effect of disk turbulence on the PIM and find its dependence on the gas turbulent viscosity, aspect ratio, and particles Stokes number.
Methods. By means of 2D gas hydrodynamical simulations, we found the minimum planet mass to form a radial pressure maximum beyond the orbit of the planet, which is the necessary condition to trap pebbles. We then carried out 2D gas plus dust hydrodynamical simulations to examine how dust turbulent diffusion impacts particles trapping at the pressure maximum. We finally provide a semi-analytical calculation of the PIM based on comparing the radial drift velocity of solids and the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations around the pressure maximum.
Results. From our results of gas simulations, we provide an expression for the PIM vs. disk aspect ratio and turbulent viscosity. Our gas plus dust simulations show that the effective PIM can be nearly an order of magnitude larger in high-viscosity disks because turbulence diffuse particles out of the pressure maximum. This is quantified by our semi-analytical calculation, which gives an explicit dependence of the PIM with Stokes number of particles.
Conclusions. Disk turbulence can significantly alter the PIM, depending on the level of turbulence in regions of planet formation.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions / submillimeter: planetary systems
© ESO 2018
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