Formation of close-in super-Earths in evolving protoplanetary disks due to disk winds
Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan,
2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka,
2 School of Arts & Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro, 153-8902 Tokyo, Japan
3 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
Accepted: 19 March 2018
Context. Planets with masses larger than about 0.1 M⊕ undergo rapid inward migration (type I migration) in a standard protoplanetary disk. Recent magnetohydrodynamical simulations revealed the presence of magnetically driven disk winds, which would alter the disk profile and the type I migration in the close-in region.
Aims. We investigate orbital evolution of planetary embryos in disks that viscously evolve under the effects of disk winds. The aim is to discuss effects of altered disk profiles on type I migration. In addition, we aim to examine whether observed distributions of close-in super-Earths can be reproduced by simulations that include effects of disk winds.
Methods. We perform N-body simulations of super-Earth formation from planetary embryos, in which a recent model for disk evolution is used. We explore a wide range of parameters and draw general trends. We also carry out N-body simulations of close-in super-Earth formation from embryos in such disks under various conditions.
Results. We find that the type I migration is significantly suppressed in many cases. Even in cases in which inward migration occurs, the migration timescale is lengthened to 1 Myr, which mitigates the type I migration problem. This is because the gas surface density is decreased and has a flatter profile in the close-in region due to disk winds. We find that when the type I migration is significantly suppressed, planets undergo late orbital instability during the gas depletion, leading to a non-resonant configuration. We also find that observed distributions of close-in super-Earths (e.g., period ratio, mass ratio) can be reproduced. In addition, we show that in some results of simulations, systems with a chain of resonant planets, like the TRAPPIST-1 system, form.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions / methods: numerical
© ESO 2018