Volume 613, May 2018
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||15 May 2018|
Super-luminous Type II supernovae powered by magnetars
Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile,
Camino El Observatorio,
2 Maison de la Simulation, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Accepted: 18 January 2018
Magnetar power is believed to be at the origin of numerous super-luminous supernovae (SNe) of Type Ic, arising from compact, hydrogen-deficient, Wolf-Rayet type stars. Here, we investigate the properties that magnetar power would have on standard-energy SNe associated with 15–20 M⊙ supergiant stars, either red (RSG; extended) or blue (BSG; more compact). We have used a combination of Eulerian gray radiation-hydrodynamics and non-LTE steady-state radiative transfer to study their dynamical, photometric, and spectroscopic properties. Adopting magnetar fields of 1, 3.5, 7 × 1014 G and rotational energies of 0.4, 1, and 3 × 1051 erg, we produce bolometric light curves with a broad maximum covering 50–150 d and a magnitude of 1043–1044 erg s−1. The spectra at maximum light are analogous to those of standard SNe II-P but bluer. Although the magnetar energy is channelled in equal proportion between SN kinetic energy and SN luminosity, the latter may be boosted by a factor of 10–100 compared to a standard SN II. This influence breaks the observed relation between brightness and ejecta expansion rate of standard Type II SNe. Magnetar energy injection also delays recombination and may even cause re-ionization, with a reversal in photospheric temperature and velocity. Depositing the magnetar energy in a narrow mass shell at the ejecta base leads to the formation of a dense shell at a few 1000 km s−1, which causes a light-curve bump at the end of the photospheric phase. Depositing this energy over a broad range of mass in the inner ejecta, to mimic the effect of multi-dimensional fluid instabilities, prevents the formation of a dense shell and produces an earlier-rising and smoother light curve. The magnetar influence on the SN radiation is generally not visible prior to 20–30 d, during which one may discern a BSG from a RSG progenitor. We propose a magnetar model for the super-luminous Type II SN OGLE-SN14-073.
Key words: radiation: dynamics / radiative transfer / supernovae: general / supernova: individual: OGLE-SN2014-073
© ESO 2018
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