Volume 610, February 2018
|Number of page(s)||5|
|Section||Letters to the Editor|
|Published online||23 February 2018|
Letter to the Editor
Jupiter’s evolution with primordial composition gradients
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam,
Science Park 904,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
2 Institute for Computational Science, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3 Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
Accepted: 23 January 2018
Recent formation and structure models of Jupiter suggest that the planet can have composition gradients and not be fully convective (adiabatic). This possibility directly affects our understanding of Jupiter’s bulk composition and origin. In this Letter we present Jupiter’s evolution with a primordial structure consisting of a relatively steep heavy-element gradient of 40 M⊕. We show that for a primordial structure with composition gradients, most of the mixing occurs in the outer part of the gradient during the early evolution (several 107 yr), leading to an adiabatic outer envelope (60% of Jupiter’s mass). We find that the composition gradient in the deep interior persists, suggesting that ~40% of Jupiter’s mass can be non-adiabatic with a higher temperature than the one derived from Jupiter’s atmospheric properties. The region that can potentially develop layered convection in Jupiter today is estimated to be limited to ~10% of the mass.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: interiors / planets and satellites: gaseous planets / planets and satellites: composition / planets and satellites: individual: Jupiter
Movies associated to Figs. 1–3 are available at https://www.aanda.org
© ESO 2018
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