Chandra and ALMA observations of the nuclear activity in two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies★
INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia – Italian ARC,
Via Piero Gobetti 101,
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
3 School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
4 Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy
5 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
6 INFN-Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy
7 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
8 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
9 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
Accepted: 27 September 2017
Aim. According to coevolutionary scenarios, nuclear activity and star formation play relevant roles in the early stages of galaxy formation. We aim at identifying them in high-redshift galaxies by exploiting high-resolution and high-sensitivity X-ray and millimeter-wavelength data to confirm the presence or absence of star formation and nuclear activity and describe their relative roles in shaping the spectral energy distributions and in contributing to the energy budgets of the galaxies.
Methods. We present the data, model, and analysis in the X-ray and millimeter (mm) bands for two strongly lensed galaxies, SDP.9 (HATLAS J090740.0-004200) and SDP.11 (HATLAS J091043.1-000322), which we selected in the Herschel-ATLAS catalogs for their excess emission in the mid-IR regime at redshift ≳1.5. This emission suggests nuclear activity in the early stages of galaxy formation. We observed both of them with Chandra ACIS-S in the X-ray regime and analyzed the high-resolution mm data that are available in the ALMA Science Archive for SDP.9. By combining the information available in mm, optical, and X-ray bands, we reconstructed the source morphology.
Results. Both targets were detected in the X-ray, which strongly indicates highly obscured nuclear activity. ALMA observations for SDP.9 for the continuum and CO(6-5) spectral line with high resolution (0.02 arcsec corresponding to ~65 pc at the distance of the galaxy) allowed us to estimate the lensed galaxy redshift to a better accuracy than pre-ALMA estimates (1.5753 ± 0.0003) and to model the emission of the optical, millimetric, and X-ray band for this galaxy. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is generated in the nuclear environment, which strongly supports that this object has nuclear activity. On the basis of the X-ray data, we attempt an estimate of the black hole properties in these galaxies.
Conclusions. By taking advantage of the lensing magnification, we identify weak nuclear activity associated with high-z galaxies with high star formation rates. This is useful to extend the investigation of the relationship between star formation and nuclear activity to two intrinsically less luminous high-z star-forming galaxies than was possible so far. Given our results for only two objects, they alone cannot constrain the evolutionary models, but provide us with interesting hints and set an observational path toward addressing the role of star formation and nuclear activity in forming galaxies.
Key words: galaxies: active / gravitational lensing: strong / submillimeter: galaxies / galaxies: evolution / X-rays: galaxies
The reduced images and data cubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A53
© ESO 2018