Volume 610, February 2018
|Number of page(s)||30|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||12 February 2018|
The molecular chemistry of diffuse and translucent clouds in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2: Absorption by simple organic and inorganic molecules in the GBT PRIMOS survey⋆
1 Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave, Tampa, FL 33605, USA
2 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
3 Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Received: 13 April 2017
Accepted: 21 August 2017
The 1–50 GHz PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) contains ~50 molecular absorption lines observed in clouds located in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2(N). The line-of-sight material is associated with diffuse and translucent clouds located in the Galactic center, bar, and spiral arms in the disk. We measured the column densities and estimate abundances, relative to H2, of 11 molecules and additional isotopologues observed in this material. We used absorption by optically thin transitions of c-C3H2 to estimate the molecular hydrogen columns, and argue that this method is preferable to more commonly used methods. We discuss the kinematic structure and abundance patterns of small molecules including the sulfur-bearing species CS, SO, CCS, H2CS, and HCS+; oxygen-bearing molecules OH, SiO, and H2CO; and simple hydrocarbon molecules c-C3H2, l-C3H, and l-C3H+. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed chemistry for the structure of the gas and dust in the ISM. Highlighted results include the following. First, whereas gas in the disk has a molecular hydrogen fraction of 0.65, clouds on the outer edge of the Galactic bar and in or near the Galactic center have molecular fractions of 0.85 and >0.9, respectively. Second, we observe trends in isotope ratios with Galactocentric distance; while carbon and silicon show enhancement of the rare isotopes at low Galactocentric distances, sulfur exhibits no trend with Galactocentric distance. We also determine that the ratio of c-C3H2/c-H13CCCH provides a good estimate of the 12C/13C ratio, whereas H2CO/H213CO exhibits fractionation. Third, we report the presence of l-C3H+ in diffuse clouds for the first time. Finally, we suggest that CS has an enhanced abundance within higher density clumps of material in the disk, and therefore may be diagnostic of cloud conditions. If this holds, the diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk contain multiple embedded hyperdensities in a clumpy structure, and the density profile is not a simple function of AV.
Key words: astrochemistry / radio lines: ISM / ISM: abundances / molecular processes / ISM: structure / Galaxy: center
The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A10
© ESO, 2018
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