Euclid: Superluminous supernovae in the Deep Survey⋆
1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2 Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
3 Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
4 IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
5 INAF-Capodimonte Observatory, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
6 INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
7 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Giuseppe Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
8 INFN – Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna, Italy
9 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
10 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
11 INFN section of Naples, via Cinthia 6, 80126 Napoli, Italy
12 Department of Physics “E. Pancini”, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, 80126 Napoli, Italy
13 INAF – IASF Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
14 Université Paris Diderot, AIM, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, CNRS 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
15 Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
16 Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
17 International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Piazzale della Repubblica 2, 65122 Pescara, Italy
18 Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB, UK
19 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
20 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
21 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
22 Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
23 Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), c/Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
24 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste Italy
25 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-237, CA 91109, USA
26 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00078 Monteporzio Catone, Italy
27 Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, 13288 Marseille, France
28 Tsinghua Center for Asttrophysics, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, PR China
29 Depto. de Electroónica y Tecnología de Computadoras Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
30 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espao, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa, Portugal
Received: 11 August 2017
Accepted: 3 October 2017
Context. In the last decade, astronomers have found a new type of supernova called superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) due to their high peak luminosity and long light-curves. These hydrogen-free explosions (SLSNe-I) can be seen to z ~ 4 and therefore, offer the possibility of probing the distant Universe.
Aims. We aim to investigate the possibility of detecting SLSNe-I using ESA’s Euclid satellite, scheduled for launch in 2020. In particular, we study the Euclid Deep Survey (EDS) which will provide a unique combination of area, depth and cadence over the mission.
Methods. We estimated the redshift distribution of Euclid SLSNe-I using the latest information on their rates and spectral energy distribution, as well as known Euclid instrument and survey parameters, including the cadence and depth of the EDS. To estimate the uncertainties, we calculated their distribution with two different set-ups, namely optimistic and pessimistic, adopting different star formation densities and rates. We also applied a standardization method to the peak magnitudes to create a simulated Hubble diagram to explore possible cosmological constraints.
Results. We show that Euclid should detect approximately 140 high-quality SLSNe-I to z ~ 3.5 over the first five years of the mission (with an additional 70 if we lower our photometric classification criteria). This sample could revolutionize the study of SLSNe-I at z > 1 and open up their use as probes of star-formation rates, galaxy populations, the interstellar and intergalactic medium. In addition, a sample of such SLSNe-I could improve constraints on a time-dependent dark energy equation-of-state, namely w(a), when combined with local SLSNe-I and the expected SN Ia sample from the Dark Energy Survey.
Conclusions. We show that Euclid will observe hundreds of SLSNe-I for free. These luminous transients will be in the Euclid data-stream and we should prepare now to identify them as they offer a new probe of the high-redshift Universe for both astrophysics and cosmology.
Key words: surveys / supernovae: general / cosmology: observations
© ESO, 2018