Star formation history of Canis Major OB1
II. A bimodal X-ray population revealed by XMM-Newton
1 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre RS 90050-170, Brazil
2 Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Departamento de Astronomia, São Paulo 05508-070, Brazil
3 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 75014 Paris, France
4 Eberhard-Karls Universität, Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
5 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
Received: 17 March 2017
Accepted: 2 October 2017
Aims. The Canis Major OB1 Association has an intriguing scenario of star formation, especially in the region called Canis Major R1 (CMa R1) traditionally assigned to a reflection nebula, but in reality an ionized region. This work is focussed on the young stellar population associated with CMa R1, for which our previous results from ROSAT, optical, and near-infrared data had revealed two stellar groups with different ages, suggesting a possible mixing of populations originated from distinct star formation episodes.
Methods. The X-ray data allow the detected sources to be characterized according to hardness ratios, light curves, and spectra. Estimates of mass and age were obtained from the 2MASS catalogue and used to define a complete subsample of stellar counterparts for statistical purposes.
Results. A catalogue of 387 XMM-Newton sources is provided, of which 78% are confirmed as members or probable members of the CMa R1 association. Flares (or similar events) were observed for 13 sources and the spectra of 21 bright sources could be fitted by a thermal plasma model. Mean values of fits parameters were used to estimate X-ray luminosities. We found a minimum value of log(LX [erg/s] ) = 29.43, indicating that our sample of low-mass stars (M⋆ ≤ 0.5 M⊙), which are faint X-ray emitters, is incomplete. Among the 250 objects selected as our complete subsample (defining our “best sample”), 171 are found to the east of the cloud, near Z CMa and dense molecular gas, of which 50% of them are young (<5 Myr) and 30% are older (>10 Myr). The opposite happens to the west, near GU CMa, in areas lacking molecular gas: among 79 objects, 30% are young and 50% are older. These findings confirm that a first episode of distributed star formation occurred in the whole studied region ~10 Myr ago and dispersed the molecular gas, while a second, localized episode (<5 Myr) took place in the regions where molecular gas is still present.
Key words: X-rays: stars / stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: low-mass
© ESO, 2018