The TROY project: Searching for co-orbital bodies to known planets
I. Project goals and first results from archival radial velocity⋆
1 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
2 Depto. de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid), Spain
3 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
4 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
5 CHEOPS fellow, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
6 IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris – PSL Research University, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Lille 1, CNRS, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France
7 CIDMA, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Received: 18 February 2017
Accepted: 8 July 2017
Context. The detection of Earth-like planets, exocomets or Kuiper belts show that the different components found in the solar system should also be present in other planetary systems. Trojans are one of these components and can be considered fossils of the first stages in the life of planetary systems. Their detection in extrasolar systems would open a new scientific window to investigate formation and migration processes.
Aims. In this context, the main goal of the TROY project is to detect exotrojans for the first time and to measure their occurrence rate (η-Trojan). In this first paper, we describe the goals and methodology of the project. Additionally, we used archival radial velocity data of 46 planetary systems to place upper limits on the mass of possible trojans and investigate the presence of co-orbital planets down to several tens of Earth masses.
Methods. We used archival radial velocity data of 46 close-in (P < 5 days) transiting planets (without detected companions) with information from high-precision radial velocity instruments. We took advantage of the time of mid-transit and secondary eclipses (when available) to constrain the possible presence of additional objects co-orbiting the star along with the planet. This, together with a good phase coverage, breaks the degeneracy between a trojan planet signature and signals coming from additional planets or underestimated eccentricity.
Results. We identify nine systems for which the archival data provide >1σ evidence for a mass imbalance between L4 and L5. Two of these systems provide >2σ detection, but no significant detection is found among our sample. We also report upper limits to the masses at L4/L5 in all studied systems and discuss the results in the context of previous findings.
Key words: planets and satellites: gaseous planets / planets and satellites: formation / minor planets, asteroids: general / techniques: radial velocities
Radial velocity data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A96
© ESO, 2018