Seismic inversion of the solar entropy
A case for improving the standard solar model
1 Institut d’Astrophysique et Géophysique de l’Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 17, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France
3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
4 Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. Des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
5 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM – CNRS – Univ. Paris Diderot – IRFU/SAp Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Received: 12 June 2017
Accepted: 13 July 2017
Context. The Sun is the most constrained and well-studied of all stars. As a consequence, the physical ingredients entering solar models are used as a reference to study all other stars observed in the Universe. However, our understanding of the solar structure is still imperfect, as illustrated by the current debate on the heavy element abundances in the Sun.
Aims. We provide additional information on the solar structure by carrying out structural inversions of a new physical quantity, a proxy of the entropy of the solar plasma whose properties are very sensitive to the temperature gradient below the convective zone.
Methods. We use new structural kernels to carry out direct inversions of an entropy proxy of the solar plasma and compare the solar structure to various standard solar models built using various opacity tables and chemical abundances. We also link our results to classical tests commonly found in the literature.
Results. Our analysis allows us to probe more efficiently the uncertain regions of the solar models, just below the convective zone, paving the way for new in-depth analyses of the Sun taking into account additional physical uncertainties of solar models beyond the specific question of chemical abundances.
Key words: Sun: helioseismology / Sun: oscillations / Sun: fundamental parameters
© ESO, 2017