VLBA imaging of the 3 mm SiO maser emission in the disk-wind from the massive protostellar system Orion Source I⋆
1 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2 ALLEGRO/Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 MIT Haystack Observatory, Off Route 40, Westford, MA 01886, USA
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5 Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
6 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
7 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Soccoro, NM 87801, USA
8 Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia
Received: 11 July 2017
Accepted: 21 July 2017
Context. High-mass star formation remains poorly understood due to observational difficulties (e.g. high dust extinction and large distances) hindering the resolution of disk-accretion and outflow-launching regions.
Aims. Orion Source I is the closest known massive young stellar object (YSO) and exceptionally powers vibrationally-excited SiO masers at radii within 100 AU, providing a unique probe of gas dynamics and energetics. We seek to observe and image these masers with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI).
Methods. We present the first images of the 28SiO v = 1, J = 2−1 maser emission around Orion Source I observed at 86 GHz (λ3 mm) with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). These images have high spatial (~0.3 mas) and spectral (~0.054 km s-1) resolutions.
Results. We find that the λ3 mm masers lie in an X-shaped locus consisting of four arms, with blue-shifted emission in the south and east arms and red-shifted emission in the north and west arms. Comparisons with previous images of the 28SiO v = 1,2, J = 1−0 transitions at λ7 mm (observed in 2001–2002) show that the bulk of the J = 2−1 transition emission follows the streamlines of the J = 1−0 emission and exhibits an overall velocity gradient consistent with the gradient at λ7 mm. While there is spatial overlap between the λ3 mm and λ7 mm transitions, the λ3 mm emission, on average, lies at larger projected distances from Source I (~44 AU compared with ~35 AU for λ7 mm). The spatial overlap between the v = 1, J = 1−0 and J = 2−1 transitions is suggestive of a range of temperatures and densities where physical conditions are favorable for both transitions of a same vibrational state. However, the observed spatial offset between the bulk of emission at λ3 mm and λ7 mm possibly indicates different ranges of temperatures and densities for optimal excitation of the masers. We discuss different maser pumping models that may explain the observed offset.
Conclusions. We interpret the λ3 mm and λ7 mm masers as being part of a single wide-angle outflow arising from the surface of an edge-on disk rotating about a northeast-southwest axis, with a continuous velocity gradient indicative of differential rotation consistent with a Keplerian profile in a high-mass proto-binary.
Key words: ISM: individual objects: Orion BN/KL (except planetary nebulae) / ISM: jets and outflows / radio lines: stars / stars: formation / masers
The reduced spectral cube (FITS format) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A126
© ESO, 2017