1 Institute for Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Received: 23 December 2016
Accepted: 20 March 2017
Are the initial conditions for clustered star formation the same as for non-clustered star formation? To investigate the initial gas properties in young proto-clusters we carried out a comprehensive and high-sensitivity study of the internal structure, density, temperature, and kinematics of the dense gas content of the NGC 1333 region in Perseus, one of the nearest and best studied embedded clusters. The analysis of the gas velocities in the position-position-velocity space reveals an intricate underlying gas organization both in space and velocity. We identified a total of 14 velocity-coherent, (tran-)sonic structures within NGC 1333, with similar physical and kinematic properties than those quiescent, star-forming (aka fertile) fibers previously identified in low-mass star-forming clouds. These fibers are arranged in a complex spatial network, build-up the observed total column density, and contain the dense cores and protostars in this cloud. Our results demonstrate that the presence of fibers is not restricted to low-mass clouds but can be extended to regions of increasing mass and complexity. We propose that the observational dichotomy between clustered and non-clustered star-forming regions might be naturally explained by the distinct spatial density of fertile fibers in these environments.
Key words: ISM: clouds / ISM: kinematics and dynamics / ISM: structure / stars: formation / submillimeter: ISM
Based on observations carried out under project number 169-11 with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).
Based on observations with the 100-m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.
Molecular line observations (spectral cubes) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A123
© ESO, 2017