1 Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
2 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
3 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
4 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliams Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
5 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
6 Eberhard Karls Universität, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
7 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
8 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
9 Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 17 March 2017
Accepted: 28 May 2017
Context. Studies of the formation and evolution of young stars and their disks rely on knowledge of the stellar parameters of the young stars. The derivation of these parameters is commonly based on comparison with photospheric template spectra. Furthermore, chromospheric emission in young active stars impacts the measurement of mass accretion rates, a key quantity for studying disk evolution.
Aims. Here we derive stellar properties of low-mass (M⋆≲ 2 M⊙) pre-main sequence stars without disks, which represent ideal photospheric templates for studies of young stars. We also use these spectra to constrain the impact of chromospheric emission on the measurements of mass accretion rates. The spectra are reduced, flux-calibrated, and corrected for telluric absorption, and are made available to the community.
Methods. We derive the spectral type for our targets by analyzing the photospheric molecular features present in their VLT/X-shooter spectra by means of spectral indices and comparison of the relative strength of photospheric absorption features. We also measure effective temperature, gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity from our spectra by fitting them with synthetic spectra with the ROTFIT tool. The targets have negligible extinction (AV< 0.5 mag) and spectral type from G5 to K6, and from M6.5 to M8. They thus complement the library of photospheric templates presented in our previous publication. We perform synthetic photometry on the spectra to derive the typical colors of young stars in different filters. We measure the luminosity of the emission lines present in the spectra and estimate the noise due to chromospheric emission in the measurements of accretion luminosity in accreting stars.
Results. We provide a calibration of the photospheric colors of young pre-main sequence stars as a function of their spectral type in a set of standard broad-band optical and near-infrared filters. The logarithm of the noise on the accretion luminosity normalized to the stellar luminosity is roughly constant and equal to ~−2.3 for targets with masses larger than 1 solar mass, and decreases with decreasing temperatures for lower-mass stars. For stars with masses of ~ 1.5 M⊙ and ages of ~ 1−5 Myr, the chromospheric noise converts to a limit of measurable mass accretion rates of ~ 3 × 10-10M⊙/yr. The limit on the mass accretion rate set by the chromospheric noise is of the order of the lowest measured values of mass accretion rates in Class II objects.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / stars: chromospheres / stars: formation / stars: low-mass / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 096.C-0979.
The spectral library is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A86
© ESO, 2017