Tidal dissipation in rotating low-mass stars and implications for the orbital evolution of close-in planets
I. From the PMS to the RGB at solar metallicity
1 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
2 Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DRF – CNRS – Univ. Paris Diderot – IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
3 NaXys, Department of Mathematics, University of Namur, 8 Rempart de la Vierge, 5000 Namur, Belgium
4 IRAP, UMR 5277, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 14 av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
5 LUPM UMR 5299 CNRS/UM, Université de Montpellier, CC 72, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
Received: 20 February 2017
Accepted: 24 May 2017
Context. Star-planet interactions must be taken into account in stellar models to understand the dynamical evolution of close-in planets. The dependence of the tidal interactions on the structural and rotational evolution of the star is of particular importance and should be correctly treated.
Aims. We quantify how tidal dissipation in the convective envelope of rotating low-mass stars evolves from the pre-main sequence up to the red-giant branch depending on the initial stellar mass. We investigate the consequences of this evolution on planetary orbital evolution.
Methods. We couple the tidal dissipation formalism previously described to the stellar evolution code STAREVOL and apply this coupling to rotating stars with masses between 0.3 and 1.4 M⊙. As a first step, this formalism assumes a simplified bi-layer stellar structure with corresponding averaged densities for the radiative core and the convective envelope. We use a frequency-averaged treatment of the dissipation of tidal inertial waves in the convection zone (but neglect the dissipation of tidal gravity waves in the radiation zone). In addition, we generalize a recent work by following the orbital evolution of close-in planets using the new tidal dissipation predictions for advanced phases of stellar evolution.
Results. On the pre-main sequence the evolution of tidal dissipation is controlled by the evolution of the internal structure of the contracting star. On the main sequence it is strongly driven by the variation of surface rotation that is impacted by magnetized stellar winds braking. The main effect of taking into account the rotational evolution of the stars is to lower the tidal dissipation strength by about four orders of magnitude on the main sequence, compared to a normalized dissipation rate that only takes into account structural changes.
Conclusions. The evolution of the dissipation strongly depends on the evolution of the internal structure and rotation of the star. From the pre-main sequence up to the tip of the red-giant branch, it varies by several orders of magnitude, with strong consequences for the orbital evolution of close-in massive planets. These effects are the strongest during the pre-main sequence, implying that the planets are mainly sensitive to the star’s early history.
Key words: hydrodynamics / waves / planet-star interactions / stars: evolution / stars: rotation
© ESO, 2017