Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars
1 Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Quartier Agora, Allée du 6 Août 19c, Bât. B5C, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2 Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
3 Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4 University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109–1107, USA
Received: 4 October 2016
Accepted: 15 February 2017
Aims. Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing.
Methods. We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity.
Results. This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: early-type / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: massive / stars: rotation
Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope. Based also on archival data from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) equipped with the University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES), the ESO/La Silla Observatory with the Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS; programmes 70.D-0110, 075.D-0061, 076.C-0431, 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997, 087.D-0946, 089.D-0189, 089.D-0975, 179.C-0197, and the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS; programme 60.A-9036), the Pic du Midi Observatory equipped with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter, the San Pedro Mártir (SPM) observatory with the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations (ESPRESSO), the OHP with the AURELIE and ELODIE échelle spectrographs, the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) with the FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES), the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), with the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) spectrograph, the Leonhard Euler Telescope with the CORALIE spectrograph.
Table F.2 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A56
© ESO, 2017