Herschel GASPS spectral observations of T Tauri stars in Taurus
Unraveling far-infrared line emission from jets and discs⋆
1 Dpto. de Física Teórica, Fac. de Ciencias, UAM Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2 Astro-UAM, UAM, Unidad Asociada CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3 Dpto. de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, ESAC Campus, PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
4 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
5 Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
6 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
7 ALMA SCO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago, Chile
Received: 26 May 2016
Accepted: 14 March 2017
Context. At early stages of stellar evolution young stars show powerful jets and/or outflows that interact with protoplanetary discs and their surroundings. Despite the scarce knowledge about the interaction of jets and/or outflows with discs, spectroscopic studies based on Herschel and ISO data suggests that gas shocked by jets and/or outflows can be traced by far-IR (FIR) emission in certain sources.
Aims. We want to provide a consistent catalogue of selected atomic ([OI] and [CII]) and molecular (CO, H2O, and OH) line fluxes observed in the FIR, separate and characterize the contribution from the jet and the disc to the observed line emission, and place the observations in an evolutionary picture.
Methods. The atomic and molecular FIR (60–190 μm) line emission of protoplanetary discs around 76 T Tauri stars located in Taurus are analysed. The observations were carried out within the Herschel key programme Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS). The spectra were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The sample is first divided in outflow and non-outflow sources according to literature tabulations. With the aid of archival stellar/disc and jet/outflow tracers and model predictions (PDRs and shocks), correlations are explored to constrain the physical mechanisms behind the observed line emission.
Results. Outflow sources exhibit brighter atomic and molecular emission lines and higher detection rates than non-outflow sources. The line detection fractions decrease with SED evolutionary status (from Class I to Class III). We find correlations between [OI] 63.18 μm and [OI] 6300 Å, o-H2O 78.74 μm, CO 144.78 μm, OH 79.12+79.18 μm, and the continuum flux at 24 μm. The atomic line ratios can be explain either by fast (Vshock > 50 km s-1) dissociative J-shocks at low densities (n ~ 103 cm-3) occurring along the jet and/or PDR emission (G0 > 102, n ~ 103−106 cm-3). To account for the [CII] absolute fluxes, PDR emission or UV irradiation of shocks is needed. In comparison, the molecular emission is more compact and the line ratios are better explained with slow (Vshock < 40 km s-1) C-type shocks with high pre-shock densities (104–106 cm-3), with the exception of OH lines, that are better described by J-type shocks. Disc models alone fail to reproduce the observed molecular line fluxes, but a contribution to the line fluxes from UV-illuminated discs and/or outflow cavities is expected. Far-IR lines dominate disc cooling at early stages and weaken as the star+disc system evolves from Class I to Class III, with an increasing relative disc contribution to the line fluxes.
Conclusions. Models which take into account jets, discs, and their mutual interaction are needed to disentangle the different components and study their evolution. The much higher detection rate of emission lines in outflow sources and the compatibility of line ratios with shock model predictions supports the idea of a dominant contribution from the jet/outflow to the line emission, in particular at earlier stages of the stellar evolution as the brightness of FIR lines depends in large part on the specific evolutionary stage.
Key words: stars: formation / circumstellar matter / protoplanetary disks / stars: evolution / astrochemistry / stars: jets
© ESO, 2017