X-ray survey of the North-America and Pelican star-forming complex (NGC 7000/IC 5070) ⋆
1 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G.S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
Received: 26 July 2016
Accepted: 20 February 2017
Aims. We present the first extensive X-ray study of the North-America and Pelican star-forming region (NGC 7000/IC 5070), with the aim of finding and characterizing the young population of this cloud.
Methods. X-ray data from Chandra (four pointings) and XMM-Newton (seven pointings) were reduced and source detection algorithm applied to each image. We complement the X-ray data with optical and near-IR data from the IPHAS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS catalogs, and with other published optical and Spitzer IR data. More than 700 X-ray sources are detected, the majority of which have an optical or near-IR (NIR) counterpart. This allowed us to identify young stars in different stages of formation.
Results. Less than 30% of X-ray sources are identified with a previously known young star. We argue that most X-ray sources with an optical or NIR counterpart, except perhaps for a few tens at near-zero reddening, are likely candidate members of the star-forming region, on the basis of both their optical and NIR magnitudes and colors, and of X-ray properties such as spectrum hardness or flux variations. They are characterized by a wide range of extinction, and sometimes near-IR excesses, both of which prevent derivation of accurate stellar parameters. The optical color-magnitude diagram suggests ages between 1–10 Myr. The X-ray members have a very complex spatial distribution with some degree of subclustering, qualitatively similar to that of previously known members. The detailed distribution of X-ray sources relative to the objects with IR excesses identified with Spitzer is sometimes suggestive of sequential star formation, especially near the “Gulf of Mexico” region, probably triggered by the O5 star which illuminates the whole region. We confirm that around the O5 star no enhancement in the young star density is found, in agreement with previous results. Thanks to the precision and depth of the IPHAS and UKIDSS data used, we also determine the local optical-IR reddening law, and compute an updated reddening map of the entire region.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / X-rays: stars / ISM: individual objects: NGC 7000
Full Tables 3–5 and reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A115
© ESO, 2017