Jupiter internal structure: the effect of different equations of state⋆
1 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293,
Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte dAzur, Bd de
34229, 06304 Nice Cedex
2 Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
3 AstroParticule et Cosmologie, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75013 Paris, France
Accepted: 11 November 2016
Context. Heavy elements, even though they are a smaller constituent, are crucial to understand the formation history of Jupiter. Interior models are used to determine the amount of heavy elements in the interior of Jupiter, but this range is still subject to degeneracies because of the uncertainties in the equations of state.
Aims. Before Juno mission data arrive, we present optimized calculations for Jupiter that explore the effect of different model parameters on the determination of the core and the mass of heavy elements of Jupiter. We compare recently published equations of state.
Methods. The interior model of Jupiter was calculated from the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium, mass, and energy conservation, and energy transport. The mass of the core and heavy elements was adjusted to match the observed radius and gravitational moments of Jupiter.
Results. We show that the determination of the interior structure of Jupiter is tied to the estimation of its gravitational moments and the accuracy of equations of state of hydrogen, helium, and heavy elements. Locating the region where helium rain occurs and defining its timescale is important to determine the distribution of heavy elements and helium in the interior of Jupiter. We show that the differences found when modeling the interior of Jupiter with recent EOS are more likely due to differences in the internal energy and entropy calculation. The consequent changes in the thermal profile lead to different estimates of the mass of the core and heavy elements, which explains differences in recently published interior models of Jupiter.
Conclusions. Our results help clarify the reasons for the differences found in interior models of Jupiter and will help interpreting upcoming Juno data.
Key words: planets and satellites: interiors / planets and satellites: individual: Jupiter / equation of state
Full appendix tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A114
© ESO, 2016