The seven sisters DANCe
II. Proper motions and the lithium rotation-activity connection for G and K Pleiades⋆
1 Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
2 UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), UMR 5274, 38041 Grenoble, France
3 Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, ETSI Informática, UNED, Juan del Rosal, 16, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4 CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
5 Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
6 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
7 European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, PO Box 50727, Villafranca del Castillo, 28080 Madrid, Spain
Received: 13 June 2016
Accepted: 30 July 2016
Context. Stellar clusters open the window to understanding stellar evolution and, in particular, the change with time and the dependence on mass of different stellar properties. As such, stellar clusters act as laboratories where different theories can be tested.
Aims. We try to understand the origin of the connection between lithium depletion in F, G, and K stars, rotation and activity in the Pleiades open cluster.
Methods. We have collected all the relevant data in the literature, including information regarding rotation period, binarity, and activity, and cross-matched this data with proper motions, multiwavelength photometry, and membership probability from the DANCe database. To avoid biases, we only included single members of the Pleiades with probabilities larger than 75% in the discussion.
Results. The analysis confirms that there is a strong link between activity, rotation, and the lithium equivalent width excess, especially for the range Lum(bol) = 0.5–0.2L⊙ (about K2–K7 spectral types or 0.75–0.95 M⊙).
Conclusions. It is not possible to disentangle these effects, but we cannot exclude that the observed lithium overabundance is partially an observational effect from enhanced activity owing to a large coverage by stellar spots induced by high rotation rates. Since a bona fide lithium enhancement is present in young, fast rotators, both activity and rotation should play a role in the lithium problem.
Key words: stars: abundances / open clusters and associations: general / starspots / stars: rotation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: late-type
Tables 1–3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A113
© ESO, 2016