Volume 595, November 2016
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||03 November 2016|
X-ray narrow emission lines from the nuclear region of NGC 1365
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK
Received: 20 June 2016
Accepted: 2 September 2016
Context. NGC 1365 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a starburst ring in its nuclear region. In this work we look at the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) data from four 2012–13, three 2007 and two 2004 observations of NGC 1365, in order to analyse and characterise in a uniform way the soft X-ray narrow-line emitting gas in the nucleus.
Aims. We characterise the narrow-line emitting gas visible by XMM-Newton RGS and make comparisons between the 2012–13 spectra and those from 2004–07, already published.
Methods. This source is usually absorbed within the soft X-ray band, with a typical neutral column density of >1.5 × 1023 cm-2, and only one observation of the nine we investigate shows low enough absorption for the continuum to emerge in the soft X-rays. We stack all observations from 2004–07, and separately three of the four observations from 2012–13, analysing the less absorbed observation separately. We first model the spectra using Gaussian profiles representing the narrow line emission. We fit physically motivated models to the 2012–13 stacked spectra, with collisionally ionised components representing the starburst emission and photoionised line emission models representing the AGN line emission. The collisional and photoionised emission line models are fitted together (rather than holding either one constant), on top of a physical continuum and absorption model.
Results. The X-ray narrow emission line spectrum of NGC 1365 is well represented by a combination of two collisionally ionised (kT of 220 ± 10 and 570 ± 15 eV) and three photoionised (log ξ of 1.5 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2) phases of emitting gas, all with higher than solar nitrogen abundances. This physical model was fitted to the 2012–13 stacked spectrum, and yet also fits well to the 2004–07 stacked spectrum, without changing any characteristics of the emitting gas phases. Our 2004–07 results are consistent with previous emission line work using these data, with five additional emission lines detected in both this and the 2012–13 stacked spectra. We also estimate the distance of the X-ray line-emitting photoionised gas from the central source to be <300 pc.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: Seyfert / X-rays: galaxies
© ESO, 2016
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