Volume 595, November 2016
|Number of page(s)||42|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||07 November 2016|
Temperature structures in Galactic center clouds
Direct evidence for gas heating via turbulence⋆
1 European Southern
Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 5 July 2016
The central molecular zone at the center of our Galaxy is the best template to study star formation processes under extreme conditions, similar to those in high-redshift galaxies. We observed on-the-fly maps of para-H2CO transitions at 218 GHz and 291 GHz towards seven Galactic center clouds. From the temperature-sensitive integrated intensity line ratios of H2CO(32,1 −22,0)/H2CO(30,3 −20,2) and H2CO(42,2 −32,1)/H2CO(40,4 −30,3) in combination with radiative transfer models, we produce gas temperature maps of our targets. These transitions are sensitive to gas with densities of ~105 cm-3 and temperatures <150 K. The measured gas temperatures in our sources are all higher (>40 K) than their dust temperatures (~25 K). Our targets have a complex velocity structure that requires a careful disentanglement of the different components. We produce temperature maps for each of the velocity components and show that the temperatures of the components differ, revealing temperature gradients in the clouds. Combining the temperature measurements with the integrated intensity line ratio of H2CO(40,4 −30,3)/H2CO(30,3 −20,2), we constrain the density of this warm gas to 104 −106 cm-3. We find a positive correlation between the line width of the main H2CO lines and the temperature of the gas, direct evidence for gas heating via turbulence. Our data is consistent with a turbulence heating model with a density of n = 105 cm-3.
Key words: Galaxy: center / ISM: molecules / ISM: structure / ISM: clouds / submillimeter: ISM
Integrated intensity maps of the H2CO lines (Figs. E.1−E.7), ratio and uncertainty maps (Figs. F.1−F.7), and temperature and uncertainty maps (Figs. H.1−H.7) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A94
© ESO 2016
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