The dynamics of z ~ 1 clusters of galaxies from the GCLASS survey
1 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
2 Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique – CEA/DSM – CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
3 Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
4 Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
5 Università degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
7 Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4, Canada
Received: 12 April 2016
Accepted: 21 July 2016
Context. The dynamics of clusters of galaxies and its evolution provide information on their formation and growth, on the nature of dark matter and on the evolution of the baryonic components. Poor observational constraints exist so far on the dynamics of clusters at redshift z > 0.8.
Aims. We aim to constrain the internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies at redshift z ~ 1, namely their mass profile M(r), velocity anisotropy profile β(r), and pseudo-phase-space density profiles Q(r) and Qr(r), obtained from the ratio between the mass density profile and the third power of the (total and, respectively, radial) velocity dispersion profiles of cluster galaxies.
Methods. We used the spectroscopic and photometric data-set of 10 clusters at 0.87 < z < 1.34 from the Gemini Cluster Astrophysics Spectroscopic Survey (GCLASS). We determined the individual cluster masses from their velocity dispersions, then stack the clusters in projected phase-space. We investigated the internal dynamics of this stack cluster, using the spatial and velocity distribution of its member galaxies. We determined the stack cluster M(r) using the MAMPOSSt method, and its β(r) by direct inversion of the Jeans equation. The procedures used to determine the two aforementioned profiles also allowed us to determine Q(r) and Qr(r).
Results. Several M(r) models are statistically acceptable for the stack cluster (Burkert, Einasto, Hernquist, NFW). The stack cluster total mass concentration, c ≡ r200/r-2 = 4.0-0.6+1.0, is in agreement with theoretical expectations. The total mass distribution is less concentrated than both the cluster stellar-mass and the cluster galaxies distributions. The stack cluster β(r) indicates that galaxy orbits are isotropic near the cluster center and become increasingly radially elongated with increasing cluster-centric distance. Passive and star-forming galaxies have similar β(r). The observed β(r) is similar to that of dark matter particles in simulated cosmological halos. Q(r) and Qr(r) are almost power-law relations with slopes similar to those predicted from numerical simulations of dark matter halos.
Conclusions. Comparing our results with those obtained for lower-redshift clusters, we conclude that the evolution of the concentration-total mass relation and pseudo-phase-space density profiles agree with the expectations from ΛCDM cosmological simulations. The fact that Q(r) and Qr(r) already follow the theoretical expectations in z ~ 1 clusters suggest these profiles are the result of rapid dynamical relaxation processes, such as violent relaxation. The different concentrations of the total and stellar mass distribution, and their subsequent evolution, can be explained by merging processes of central galaxies leading to the formation of the brightest cluster galaxy. The orbits of passive cluster galaxies appear to become more isotropic with time, while those of star-forming galaxies do not evolve, presumably because star-formation is quenched on a shorter timescale than that required for orbital isotropization.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
© ESO, 2016