Tracing outflows in the AGN forbidden region with SINFONI
1 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
2 INAF–Observatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
4 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy
5 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
6 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
7 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio Catone, Italy
8 Frequency Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Tsukuba-central 3-1, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8563 Ibaraki, Japan
9 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, 181-8588 Tokyo, Japan
Received: 15 December 2015
Accepted: 24 May 2016
Context. Active galactic nucleus (AGN) driven outflows are invoked in numerical simulations to reproduce several observed properties of local galaxies. The z > 1 epoch is of particular interest as it was during this time that the volume averaged star formation and the accretion rate of black holes were at their maximum. Radiatively driven outflows are therefore believed to be common during this epoch.
Aims. We aim to trace and characterize outflows in AGN hosts with high mass accretion rates at z > 1 using integral field spectroscopy. We obtain spatially resolved kinematics of the [O iii] λ5007 line in two targets which reveal the morphology and spatial extension of the outflows.
Methods. We present SINFONI observations in the J band and the H + K band of five AGNs at 1.2 < z < 2.2. To maximize the chance of observing radiatively driven outflows, our sample was pre-selected based on peculiar values of the Eddington ratio and the hydrogen column density of the surrounding interstellar medium. We observe high velocity (~600−1900 km s-1) and kiloparsec scale extended ionized outflows in at least three of our targets, using [O iii] λ5007 line kinematics tracing the AGN narrow line region. We estimate the total mass of the outflow, the mass outflow rate, and the kinetic power of the outflows based on theoretical models and report on the uncertainties associated with them.
Results. We find mass outflow rates of ~1−10 M⊙/yr for the sample presented in this paper. Based on the high star formation rates of the host galaxies, the observed outflow kinetic power, and the expected power due to the AGN, we infer that both star formation and AGN radiation could be the dominant source for the outflows. The outflow models suffer from large uncertainties, hence we call for further detailed observations for an accurate determination of the outflow properties to confirm the exact source of these outflows.
Key words: galaxies: active / quasars: emission lines / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / quasars: supermassive black holes
© ESO, 2016