The Gaia-ESO Survey: Inhibited extra mixing in two giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20?⋆
1 Department for Astrophysics, Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
4 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
5 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
6 Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Goštauto 12, 01108 Vilnius, Lithuania
7 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
8 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
9 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
10 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
11 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
12 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
13 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
14 Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Physics Dpt., 33 rue St Leu, 80000 Amiens, France
15 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
16 ASI Science Data Center, via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy
17 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
18 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
19 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
20 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago, Chile
21 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Received: 16 March 2016
Accepted: 29 April 2016
Aims. We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~1.8 M⊙). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey.
Methods. The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects.
Results. Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li)non−LTE = 1.54 ± 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li)non−LTE = 1.60 ± 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up.
Conclusions. The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra mixing is the norm in this mass range. Giants with Li abundances in agreement with the predictions of standard models are the exception. To explain the two Li-rich giants, we suggest that all events of extra mixing have been inhibited. This includes rotation-induced mixing during the main sequence and the extra mixing at the red giant branch luminosity bump. Such inhibition has been suggested in the literature to occur because of fossil magnetic fields in red giants that are descendants of main-sequence Ap-type stars.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: evolution / stars: late-type / open clusters and associations: individual: Trumpler 20
© ESO, 2016