Volume 588, April 2016
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Section||Catalogs and data|
|Published online||25 March 2016|
Far-infrared photometric observations of the outer planets and satellites with Herschel-PACS⋆
1 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstraße, 85741 Garching, Germany
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire d’Études Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France
4 Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege 15−17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary
Received: 15 September 2015
Accepted: 27 January 2016
We present all Herschel-PACS photometer observations of Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Callisto, Ganymede, and Titan. All measurements were carefully inspected for quality problems, were reduced in a (semi-)standard way, and were calibrated. The derived flux densities are tied to the standard PACS photometer response calibration, which is based on repeated measurements of five fiducial stars. The overall absolute flux uncertainty is dominated by the estimated 5% model uncertainty of the stellar models in the PACS wavelength range between 60 and 210 μm. A comparison with the corresponding planet and satellite models shows excellent agreement for Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, well within the specified 5%. Callisto is brighter than our model predictions by about 4−8%, Ganymede by about 14−21%. We discuss possible reasons for the model offsets. The measurements of these very bright point-like sources, together with observations of stars and asteroids, demonstrate the high reliability of the PACS photometer observations and the linear behavior of the PACS bolometer source fluxes over more than four orders of magnitude (from mJy levels up to more than 1000 Jy). Our results show the great potential of using the observed solar system targets for cross-calibration purposes with other ground-based, airborne, and space-based instruments and projects. At the same time, the PACS results will lead to improved model solutions for future calibration applications.
Key words: instrumentation: photometers / methods: data analysis / space vehicles: instruments / techniques: photometric / radiation mechanisms: thermal / infrared: planetary systems
© ESO, 2016
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