Volume 587, March 2016
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Published online||29 February 2016|
Dust properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3
Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de
Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388
2 University of Maryland, Dept. of Astronomy, College park, MD 20742, USA
3 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
5 Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
6 Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
7 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, 1111 Avda. Gran Bretaña, Valparaíso, Chile
8 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
9 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
10 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
11 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
12 Max-Planck-Institute für Plasma Physics, Boltzmann Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
13 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada
14 Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, 790-8577 Matsuyama, Japan
15 Department of Physics, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, IL6180124 Urbana, USA
16 Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, IL61801 Urbana, USA
17 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
18 Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
Received: 14 August 2015
Accepted: 12 December 2015
Context. Since the mid-1990s, the sample of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) has been growing thanks to the increasing sensitivities in the optical and in near-infrared telescopes for objects at z> 2.5. However, the dust properties of the LBGs are poorly known because the samples are small and/or biased against far-infrared (far-IR) or submillimeter (submm) observations.
Aims. This work explores from a statistical point of view the far-IR and submm properties of a large sample of LBGs at z ~ 3 that cannot be individually detected from current far-IR observations.
Methods. We select a sample of 22, 000 LBGs at 2.5 <z< 3.5 in the COSMOS field using the dropout technique. The large number of galaxies included in the sample allows us to split it into several bins as a function of UV luminosity (LFUV), UV continuum slope (βUV), and stellar mass (M∗) to better sample their variety. We stack in PACS (100 and 160 μm) images from PACS Evolution Probe survey (PEP), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 μm) images from the Herschel Multi-tied Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) programs, and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions.
Results. We obtain the full infrared spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of LFUV, βUV, and M∗. The average IRX (or dust attenuation) is roughly constant over the LFUV range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with βUV, AFUV = (3.15 ± 0.12) + (1.47 ± 0.14) βUV, and stellar mass, log (IRX) = (0.84 ± 0.11)log (M∗/ 1010.35) + 1.17 ± 0.05. We investigate using a statistically controlled stacking analysis as a function of (M∗, βUV), the dispersion of the IRX-βUV and IRX-M∗ plane. On the one hand, the dust attenuation shows a departure of up to 2.8 mag above the mean IRX-βUV relation when log (M∗ [ M⊙ ]) increases from 9.75 to 11.5 in the same βUV bin. This strongly suggests that M∗ plays an important role in shaping the IRX-βUV plane. On the other hand, the IRX-M∗ plane is less dispersed for variation in the βUV. However, the dust attenuation shows a departure of up to 1.3 mag above the mean IRX-M∗ relation, when βUV increases from −1.7 to 0.5 in the same M∗ bin. The low stellar mass LBGs (log (M∗ [ M⊙ ] ) < 10.5) and red βUV (βUV> −0.7), 15% of the total sample, present a high dust attenuation than the mean IRX-M∗, but they are still in agreement with the mean IRX-βUV relation. We suggest that we have to combine both the IRX-βUV and IRX-M∗ relations to obtain the best estimation of the dust attenuation from the UV and NIR properties of the galaxies (LFUV, βUV, M∗). Our results enable us to study the average relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, and we show that our LBG sample lies on the main sequence of star formation at z ~ 3. we demonstrate that the SFR is underestimate for LBGs with high stellar mass, but it give a good estimation for LBGs with lower stellar mass when we calculate the SFR by correcting the LFUV using the IRX-βUV relation.
Key words: galaxies: starburst / ultraviolet: galaxies / infrared: galaxies / submillimeter: galaxies / galaxies: high-redshift
© ESO, 2016
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