Volume 587, March 2016
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||11 February 2016|
Outflow forces in intermediate-mass star formation⋆
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
Niels Bohrweg 2,
2 Joint ALMA Offices, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 2, 85478 Garching, Germany
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
6 UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
7 Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
8 Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa, Italy
9 Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Low Energy Astrophysics Division, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
10 Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
11 Department of Quantum Nanoscience, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft, The Netherlands
12 Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
13 Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Sloneczna 36, 60-286 Poznan, Poland
14 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
15 Netherlands Research School for Astronomy, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Received: 30 July 2014
Accepted: 6 July 2015
Context. Protostars of intermediate-mass provide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Molecular outflows emerging from such sources can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the apparent correlation of outflow forces of intermediate-mass protostars with the total luminosity instead of the individual luminosity.
Aims. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate-mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodologies.
Methods. By comparing CO 6–5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, the optical depths, temperatures and densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales, and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated.
Results. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line with recent low-mass results. However, comparison with other studies could not corroborate conclusions from earlier work on intermediate-mass protostars which hypothesized that fragmentation enhances outflow forces in clustered intermediate-mass star formation. Any enhancement in comparison with the classical relation between outflow force and luminosity can be attributed to the use of a higher excitation line and improvement in methods. They are in line with results from low-mass protostars using similar techniques.
Conclusions. The role of fragmentation on outflows is an important ingredient to understand clustered star formation and the link between low- and high-mass star formation. However, detailed information on spatial scales of a few 100 AU, covering all individual members is needed to make the necessary progress.
Key words: circumstellar matter / stars: formation / ISM: jets and outflows / submillimeter: ISM
Data cubes from OTF maps are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A17
© ESO, 2016
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