The peculiar optical-UV X-ray spectra of the X-ray weak quasar PG 0043+039⋆
1 Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen Friedrich-Hund Platz 1 37077 Göttingen Germany
2 XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESA, Villafranca del Castillo, Apartado 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
3 Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF), via Brera 28, 20121 Milano, Italy
Received: 23 June 2015
Accepted: 25 September 2015
Context. The object PG 0043+039 has been identified as a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar based on its UV spectra. However, this optical luminous quasar has not been detected before in deep X-ray observations, making it the most extreme X-ray weak quasar known today.
Aims. This study aims to detect PG 0043+039 in a deep X-ray exposure. The question is what causes the extreme X-ray weakness of PG 0043+039? Does PG 0043+039 show other spectral or continuum peculiarities?
Methods. We took simultaneous deep X-ray spectra with XMM-Newton, far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and optical spectra of PG 0043+039 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in July, 2013.
Results. We have detected PG 0043+039 in our X-ray exposure taken in 2013. We presented our first results in a separate paper (Kollatschny et al. 2015). PG 0043+039 shows an extreme αox gradient (αox = −2.37). Furthermore, we were able to verify an X-ray flux of this source in a reanalysis of the X-ray data taken in 2005. At that time, it was fainter by a factor of 3.8 ±0.9 with αox = −2.55. The X-ray spectrum is compatible with a normal quasar power-law spectrum (Γ = 1.70-0.45+0.57) with moderate intrinsic absorption (NH = 5.5-3.9+6.9 × 1021 cm-2) and reflection. The UV/optical flux of PG 0043+039 has increased by a factor of 1.8 compared to spectra taken in the years 1990-1991. The FUV spectrum is highly peculiar and dominated by broad bumps besides Lyα. There is no detectable Lyman edge associated with the BAL absorbing gas seen in the CIV line. PG 0043+039 shows a maximum in the overall continuum flux at around λ ≈ 2500 Å in contrast to most other AGN where the maximum is found at shorter wavelengths. All the above is compatible with an intrinsically X-ray weak quasar, rather than an absorbed X-ray emission. Besides strong FeII multiplets and broad Balmer and HeI lines in the optical band we only detect a narrow [O ii]λ3727 emission line and a BAL system in the CaH λ3968, CaK λ3934 lines (blueshifted by 4900 km s-1) and in the He i λ3889 line (blueshifted by 5600 km s-1).
Key words: galaxies: active / quasars: individual: PG0043+039 / X-rays: galaxies / ultraviolet: galaxies
© ESO, 2015