Volume 579, July 2015
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||30 June 2015|
The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS)
Hierarchical scaling and biasing⋆
INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1,
2 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, 06300 Nice, France
3 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia – Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
4 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
5 Centre de Physique Théorique, UMR 6207 CNRS-Université de Provence, Case 907, 13288 Marseille, France
6 Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy
7 INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy
8 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone ( RM), Italy
9 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
10 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20122 Milano, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
11 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
13 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65–1238 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743, USA
14 INAF–Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
15 Astronomical Observatory of the University of Geneva, Ch. d’Écogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
16 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
17 Institute ofPhysics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
18 Department of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, 464-8602 Nagoya, Japan
19 National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa, Poland
20 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
21 Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-001 Cracow, Poland
22 Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX, UK
23 INAF–Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
24 INAF–Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
25 Università degli Studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 16, 20130 Milano, Italy
26 SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
27 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, 84571 Garching b. München, Germany
28 Universitätssternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximillians Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München, Germany
Received: 23 January 2015
Accepted: 5 May 2015
Aims. Building on the two-point correlation function analyses of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the same galaxy samples to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z ~ 1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. With this work we also aim to assess possible deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey.
Methods. We have measured the count probability distribution function in spherical cells of varying radii (3 ≤ R ≤ 10 h-1 Mpc), deriving σ8g (the galaxy rms at 8 h-1 Mpc), the volume-averaged two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness S3g and kurtosis S4g for different volume-limited subsamples, covering the following ranges: −19.5 ≤ MB(z = 1.1) − 5log (h) ≤ −21.0 in absolute magnitude, 9.0 ≤ log (M∗/M⊙h-2) ≤ 11.0 in stellar mass, and 0.5 ≤ z< 1.1 in redshift.
Results. We have performed the first measurement of high-order correlation functions at z ~ 1 in a spectroscopic redshift survey. Our main results are the following. 1) The hierarchical scaling between the volume-averaged two- and three-point and two- and four-point correlation functions holds throughout the whole range of scale and redshift we could test. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of S3g on luminosity (below z = 0.9 the value of S3g decreases with luminosity, but only at 1σ-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of S3g and S4g on scale, except beyond z ~ 0.9, where S3g and S4g have higher values on large scales (R ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc): this increase is mainly due to one of the two CFHTLS Wide Fields observed by VIPERS and can be explained as a consequence of sample variance, consistently with our analysis of mock catalogs. 4) We do not detect a significant evolution of S3g and S4g with redshift (apart from the increase of their values with scale in the last redshift bin). 5) σ8g increases with luminosity, but does not show significant evolution with redshift. As a consequence, the linear bias factor b = σ8g/σ8m, where σ8m is the rms of matter at a scale of 8 h-1 Mpc, increases with redshift, in agreement with the independent analysis of VIPERS and of other surveys such as the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). We measure the lowest bias b = 1.47 ± 0.18 for galaxies with MB(z = 1.1) − 5log (h) ≤ −19.5 in the first redshift bin (0.5 ≤ z< 0.7) and the highest bias b = 2.12 ± 0.28 for galaxies with MB(z = 1.1) − 5log (h) ≤ −21.0 in the last redshift bin (0.9 ≤ z< 1.1). 6) We quantify deviations from the linear bias by means of the Taylor expansion parameter b2. We obtain b2 = −0.20 ± 0.49 for 0.5 ≤ z< 0.7 and b2 = −0.24 ± 0.35 for 0.7 ≤ z< 0.9, while for the redshift range 0.9 ≤ z< 1.1 we find b2 = + 0.78 ± 0.82. These results are compatible with a null non-linear bias term, but taking into account another analysis for VIPERS and the analysis of other surveys, we argue that there is evidence for a small but non-zero non-linear bias term.
Key words: large-scale structure of Universe / cosmology: observations / dark matter / galaxies: statistics
Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it
© ESO, 2015
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