Formation of terrestrial planets in disks evolving via disk winds and implications for the origin of the solar system’s terrestrial planets
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire,
Nice Cedex 4,
2 Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan
Accepted: 20 April 2015
Context. Recent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations have identified a disk wind by which gas materials are lost from the surface of a protoplanetary disk, which can significantly alter the evolution of the inner disk and the formation of terrestrial planets. A simultaneous description of the realistic evolution of the gaseous and solid components in a disk may provide a clue for solving the problem of the mass concentration of the terrestrial planets in the solar system.
Aims. We simulate the formation of terrestrial planets from planetary embryos in a disk that evolves via magnetorotational instability and a disk wind. The aim is to examine the effects of a disk wind on the orbital evolution and final configuration of planetary systems.
Methods. We perform N-body simulations of sixty 0.1 Earth-mass embryos in an evolving disk. The evolution of the gas surface density of the disk is tracked by solving a one-dimensional diffusion equation with a sink term that accounts for the disk wind.
Results. We find that even in the case of a weak disk wind, the radial slope of the gas surface density of the inner disk becomes shallower, which slows or halts the Type I migration of embryos. If the effect of the disk wind is strong, the disk profile is significantly altered (e.g., positive surface density gradient, inside-out evacuation), leading to outward migration of embryos inside ~1 AU.
Conclusions. Disk winds play an essential role in terrestrial planet formation inside a few AU by changing the disk profile. In addition, embryos can undergo convergent migration to ~1 AU in certainly probable conditions. In such a case, the characteristic features of the solar system’s terrestrial planets (e.g., mass concentration around 1 AU, late giant impact) may be reproduced.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions
© ESO, 2015