Volume 572, December 2014
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Published online||18 November 2014|
The relativistic solar particle event of 2005 January 20: origin of delayed particle acceleration
LESIA-UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 & 7,
Observatoire de Meudon,
2 Space Weather Laboratory, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
3 Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave NE, Washington DC, 20064, USA
4 Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, 15783 Zografos ( Athens), Greece
5 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Lermontov St. 126A, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
Received: 8 March 2014
Accepted: 14 August 2014
Context. The highest energies of solar energetic nucleons detected in space or through gamma-ray emission in the solar atmosphere are in the GeV range. Where and how the particles are accelerated is still controversial.
Aims. We search for observational information on the location and nature of the acceleration region(s) by comparing the timing of relativistic protons detected on Earth and radiative signatures in the solar atmosphere during the particularly well-observed 2005 Jan. 20 event.
Methods. This investigation focusses on the post-impulsive flare phase, where a second peak was observed in the relativistic proton time profile by neutron monitors. This time profile is compared in detail with UV imaging and radio spectrography over a broad frequency band from the low corona to interplanetary space.
Results. It is shown that the late relativistic proton release to interplanetary space was accompanied by a distinct new episode of energy release and electron acceleration in the corona traced by the radio emission and by brightenings of UV kernels. These signatures are interpreted in terms of magnetic restructuring in the corona after the coronal mass ejection passage.
Conclusions. We attribute the delayed relativistic proton acceleration to magnetic reconnection and possibly to turbulence in large-scale coronal loops. While Type II radio emission was observed in the high corona, no evidence of a temporal relationship with the relativistic proton acceleration was found.
Key words: acceleration of particles / Sun: radio radiation / solar-terrestrial relations / Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) / Sun: flares / Sun: particle emission
© ESO, 2014
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