Volume 572, December 2014
|Number of page(s)||39|
|Section||Atomic, molecular, and nuclear data|
|Published online||27 November 2014|
Laboratory characterization and astrophysical detection of vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide in Orion-KL⋆,⋆⋆
1 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica Molecular, Ctra. de Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
2 Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa, Poland
3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
4 Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Unidad Asociada CSIC, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Cientfico UVa, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011, Valladolid, Spain
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6B, UK
6 NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902, USA
7 Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
8 Ohio State University, 191 W. Wooddruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Received: 11 February 2014
Accepted: 12 July 2014
Context. We perform a laboratory characterization in the 18–1893 GHz range and astronomical detection between 80–280 GHz in Orion-KL with IRAM-30 m of CH2CHCN (vinyl cyanide) in its ground and vibrationally excited states.
Aims. Our aim is to improve the understanding of rotational spectra of vibrationally excited vinyl cyanide with new laboratory data and analysis. The laboratory results allow searching for these excited state transitions in the Orion-KL line survey. Furthermore, rotational lines of CH2CHCN contribute to the understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the cloud.
Methods. Laboratory measurements of CH2CHCN made on several different frequency-modulated spectrometers were combined into a single broadband 50–1900 GHz spectrum and its assignment was confirmed by Stark modulation spectra recorded in the 18–40 GHz region and by ab-initio anharmonic force field calculations. For analyzing the emission lines of vinyl cyanide detected in Orion-KL we used the excitation and radiative transfer code (MADEX) at LTE conditions.
Results. Detailed characterization of laboratory spectra of CH2CHCN in nine different excited vibrational states: ν11 = 1, ν15 = 1, ν11 = 2, ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1), ν11 = 3/ν15 = 2/ν14 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν10 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 2,ν15 = 1), ν9 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 2) ⇔ (ν10 = 1,ν15 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν14 = 1), and ν11 = 4 are determined, as well as the detection of transitions in the ν11 = 2 and ν11 = 3 states for the first time in Orion-KL and of those in the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad of states for the first time in space. The rotational transitions of the ground state of this molecule emerge from four cloud components of hot core nature, which trace the physical and chemical conditions of high mass star forming regions in the Orion-KL Nebula. The lowest energy vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide, such as ν11 = 1 (at 328.5 K), ν15 = 1 (at 478.6 K), ν11 = 2 (at 657.8 K), the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad (at 806.4/809.9 K), and ν11 = 3 (at 987.9 K), are populated under warm and dense conditions, so they probe the hottest parts of the Orion-KL source. The vibrational temperatures derived for the ν11 = 1, ν11 = 2, and ν15 = 1 states are 252 ± 76 K, 242 ± 121 K, and 227 ± 68 K, respectively; all of them are close to the mean kinetic temperature of the hot core component (210 K). The total column density of CH2CHCN in the ground state is (3.0 ± 0.9) × 1015 cm-2. We report the detection of methyl isocyanide (CH3NC) for the first time in Orion-KL and a tentative detection of vinyl isocyanide (CH2CHNC). We also give column density ratios between the cyanide and isocyanide isomers, obtaining a N(CH3NC)/N(CH3CN) ratio of 0.002.
Conclusions. Laboratory characterization of many previously unassigned vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide ranging from microwave to THz frequencies allowed us to detect these molecular species in Orion-KL. Column density, rotational and vibrational temperatures for CH2CHCN in their ground and excited states, and the isotopologues have been constrained by means of a sample of more than 1000 lines in this survey.
Key words: ISM: abundances / ISM: molecules / stars: formation / line: identification / methods: laboratory: molecular / radio lines: ISM
The full Tables A.6–A.14 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A44
© ESO, 2014
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