On the origin of stars with and without planets
1 Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Received: 15 January 2014
Accepted: 25 March 2014
We explore a sample of 148 solar-like stars to search for a possible correlation between the slopes of the abundance trends versus condensation temperature (known as the Tc slope) with stellar parameters and Galactic orbital parameters in order to understand the nature of the peculiar chemical signatures of these stars and the possible connection with planet formation. We find that the Tc slope significantly correlates (at more than 4σ) with the stellar age and the stellar surface gravity. We also find tentative evidence that the Tc slope correlates with the mean galactocentric distance of the stars (Rmean), suggesting that those stars that originated in the inner Galaxy have fewer refractory elements relative to the volatiles. While the average Tc slope for planet-hosting solar analogs is steeper than that of their counterparts without planets, this difference probably reflects the difference in their age and Rmean. We conclude that the age and probably the Galactic birth place are determinant to establish the star’s chemical properties. Old stars (and stars with inner disk origin) have a lower refractory-to-volatile ratio.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: atmospheres / planetary systems / stars: kinematics and dynamics
Based on observations collected with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope (072.C-0488(E)), installed at the La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the UVES spectrograph at the 8-m Very Large Telescope program IDs: 67.C-0206(A), 074.C-0134(A), 075.D-0453(A), installed at the Cerro Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile), and with the UES spectrograph at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma.
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014