Volume 560, December 2013
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||09 December 2013|
An optical spectroscopic survey of the 3CR sample of radio galaxies with z < 0.3
V. Implications for the unified model for FR IIs⋆
1 SISSA-ISAS, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy
2 INAF − Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
3 INAF − Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
5 INAF − Istituto di Radio Astronomia, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
6 Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
7 INAF − Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
8 INFN − Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Received: 14 October 2013
Accepted: 30 October 2013
We explore the implications of our optical spectroscopic survey of 3CR radio sources with z < 0.3 for the unified model (UM) for radio-loud AGN, focusing on objects with a “edge-brightened” (FR II) radio morphology. The sample contains 33 high ionization galaxies (HIGs) and 18 broad line objects (BLOs). According to the UM, HIGs, the narrow line sources, are the nuclearly obscured counterparts of BLOs. The fraction of HIGs indicates a covering factor of the circumnuclear matter of 65% that corresponds, adopting a torus geometry, to an opening angle of 50° ± 5. No dependence on redshift and luminosity on the torus opening angle emerges. We also consider the implications for a “clumpy” torus. The distributions of total radio luminosity of HIGs and BLOs are not statistically distinguishable, as expected from the UM. Conversely, BLOs have a radio core dominance, R, more than ten times larger with respect to HIGs, as expected in case of Doppler boosting when the jets in BLOs are preferentially oriented closer to the line of sight than in HIGs. Modeling the R distributions leads to an estimate of the jet bulk Lorentz factor of Γ ~ 3−5. The test of the UM based on the radio source size is not conclusive due to the limited number of objects and because the size distribution is dominated by the intrinsic scatter rather than by projection effects. The [O II] line luminosities in HIGs and BLOs are similar but the [O III] and [O I] lines are higher in BLOs by a factor of ~2. We ascribe this effect to the presence of a line emitting region located within the walls of the obscuring torus, visible in BLOs but obscured in HIGs, with a density higher than the [O II] critical density. We find evidence that BLOs have broader [O I] and [O III] lines than HIGs of similar [O II] width, as expected in the presence of high density gas in the proximity of the central black hole. In conclusion, the radio and narrow line region (NLR) properties of HIGs and BLOs are consistent with the UM predictions when the partial obscuration of the NLR is taken into account. We also explored the radio properties of 21 3CR low ionization galaxies with a FR II radio morphology at z < 0.3. We find evidence that they cannot be part of the model that unifies HIGs and BLOs, but they are instead intrinsically different source, still reproduced by a randomly oriented population.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / galaxies: nuclei
Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.