Spatial distribution of small hydrocarbons in the neighborhood of the ultra compact HII region Monoceros R2 ⋆,⋆⋆,⋆⋆⋆
1 Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. M-108, km. 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain
2 Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Apdo. 112, 28803 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain
3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
4 Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, 18012 Granada, Spain
5 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse, France
6 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
7 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
8 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower Place, London WC1E6 BT, UK
9 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d’ Hères, France
10 Department of Physics, PO Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
11 I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
12 Observatoire de Paris, LUTH and Université Denis Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
Received: 26 November 2012
Accepted: 15 March 2013
Context. We study the chemistry of small hydrocarbons in the photon-dominated regions (PDRs) associated with the ultra-compact H ii region (UCH ii) Mon R2.
Aims. Our goal is to determine the variations in the abundance of small hydrocarbons in a high-UV irradiated PDR and investigate the chemistry of these species.
Methods. We present an observational study of the small hydrocarbons CH, CCH, and c-C3H2 in Mon R2 that combines spectral mapping data obtained with the IRAM-30 m telescope and the Herschel space observatory. We determine the column densities of these species, and compare their spatial distributions with that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which trace the PDR. We compare the observational results with different chemical models to explore the relative importance of gas-phase, grain-surface, and time-dependent chemistry in these environments.
Results. The emission of the small hydrocarbons show different spatial patterns. The CCH emission is extended, while CH and c-C3H2 are concentrated towards the more illuminated layers of the PDR. The ratio of the column densities of c-C3H2 and CCH shows spatial variations up to a factor of a few, increasing from N(c - C3H2)/N(CCH) ≈ 0.004 in the envelope to a maximum of ≈0.015 − 0.029 towards the 8 μm emission peak. Comparing these results with other galactic PDRs, we find that the abundance of CCH is quite constant over a wide range of G0, whereas the abundance of c-C3H2 is higher in low-UV PDRs, with the N(c - C3H2)/N(CCH) ratio ranging ≈0.008–0.08 from high to low UV PDRs. In Mon R2, the gas-phase steady-state chemistry can account relatively well for the abundances of CH and CCH in the most exposed layers of the PDR, but falls short by a factor of 10 of reproducing c-C3H2. In the low-density molecular envelope, time-dependent effects and grain surface chemistry play dominant roles in determining the hydrocarbon abundances.
Conclusions. Our study shows that the small hydrocarbons CCH and c-C3H2 present a complex chemistry in which UV photons, grain-surface chemistry, and time dependent effects contribute to determining their abundances. Each of these effects may be dominant depending on the local physical conditions, and the superposition of different regions along the line of sight leads to the variety of measured abundances.
Key words: ISM: abundances / ISM: individual objects: Monoceros R2 / photon-dominated region (PDR) / ISM: molecules / radio lines: ISM
Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).
Appendix B is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013