Multiplicity of Galactic Cepheids from long-baseline interferometry
I. CHARA/MIRC detection of the companion of V1334 Cygni
1 Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160, Concepción, Chile
2 Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, 1034 Dennison Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090, USA
3 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
4 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
5 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
6 The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson CA 91023, USA
7 Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15–17, Hungary
8 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, UK
9 Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland
Received: 11 January 2013
Accepted: 6 February 2013
Context. More than 60% of Cepheids are in binary or multiple systems. Studying such systems could lead to a better understanding of the age and evolution of Cepheids. These are also useful tools to estimate the mass of Cepheids, and constrain theoretical models of their pulsation and evolution.
Aims. We aim at determining the masses of Cepheids in binary systems, as well as their geometric distances and the flux contribution of the companions. The combination of interferometry with spectroscopy will offer a unique and independent estimate of the Cepheid masses.
Methods. Using long-baseline interferometry at visible and infrared wavelengths, it is possible to spatially resolve binary systems containing a Cepheid down to milliarcsecond separations. Based on the resulting visual orbit and radial velocities, we can then derive the fundamental parameters of these systems, particularly the masses of the components and the geometric distance. We therefore performed interferometric observations of the first-overtone mode Cepheid V1334 Cyg with the CHARA/MIRC combiner.
Results. We report the first detection of a Cepheid companion using long-baseline interferometry. We detect the signature of a companion orbiting V1334 Cyg at two epochs. We measure a flux ratio between the companion and the Cepheid f = 3.10 ± 0.08%, giving an apparent magnitude mH = 8.47 ± 0.15 mag. The combination of interferometric and spectroscopic data have enabled the unique determination of the orbital elements. P = 1938.6 ± 1.2 days, Tp = 2 443 616.1 ± 7.3, a = 8.54 ± 0.51 mas, i = 124.7 ± 1.8°, e = 0.190 ± 0.013, ω = 228.7 ± 1.6°, and Ω = 206.3 ± 9.4°. We derive a minimal distance d ~ 691 pc, a minimum mass for both stars of 3.6 M⊙, with a spectral type earlier than B5.5V for the companion star. Our measured flux ratio suggests that radial velocity detection of the companion using spectroscopy is within reach, and would provide an orbital parallax and model-free masses.
Key words: techniques: interferometric / instrumentation: high angular resolution / stars: variables: Cepheids / binaries: close
© ESO, 2013