The X-ray spectrum of δ Orionis observed by LETGS aboard Chandra
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA
2 Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek”, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691 Madrid, Spain
Received: 29 November 2011
Accepted: 26 November 2012
Aims. We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the supergiant O-star δ Orionis (O9.5II) with line ratios of He-like ions and a thermal plasma model, and we examine its variability.
Methods. The O-supergiant δ Ori was observed in the wavelength range 5–175 Å by the X-ray detector HRC-S in combination with the grating LETG aboard Chandra. We studied the He-like ions in combination with the UV-radiation field to determine local plasma temperatures and to establish the distance of the X-ray emitting ions to the stellar surface. We measured individual lines by means of Gaussian profiles, folded through the response matrix, to obtain wavelengths, line fluxes, half widths at half maximum (HWHM) and line shifts to characterize the plasma. We consider multitemperature models in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) to determine temperatures, emission measures, and abundances.
Results. Analysis of the He-like triplets extended to N vi and C v implies ionization stratification with the hottest plasma to be found within a few stellar radii 3 R∗ (Mg xi) and the coolest farther out, far beyond the acceleration zone, up to 49 R∗ (N vi) and 75 R∗ (C v). The observed temperatures cover a range from about 0.1 to 0.7 keV, i.e., 1–8 MK. The X-ray luminosity (Lx) is ~1.5 × 1032 erg/s in the range from 0.07 to 3 keV covered by LETGS. Velocity widths of about 1040 km s-1 have been determined.
Key words: supergiants / X-rays: stars / stars: individual: delta Orionis / stars: mass-loss
© ESO, 2013