Volume 547, November 2012
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||18 October 2012|
The role of OH in the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks
II. Gas-rich environments
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute,
Received: 3 July 2012
Accepted: 21 September 2012
Context. We present a method for including gas extinction of cosmic-ray-generated UV photons in chemical models of the midplane of protoplanetary disks, focusing on its implications on ice formation and chemical evolution.
Aims. Our goal is to improve on chemical models by treating cosmic rays, the main source of ionization in the midplane of the disk, in a way that is consistent with current knowledge of the gas and grain environment present in those regions. We trace the effects of cosmic rays by identifying the main chemical reaction channels and also the main contributors to the gas opacity to cosmic-ray-induced UV photons. This information is crucial in implementing gas opacities for cosmic-ray-induced reactions in full 2D protoplanetary disk models.
Methods. We considered time-dependent chemical models within the range 1–10 AU in the midplane of a T Tauri disk. The extinction of cosmic-ray-induced UV photons by gaseous species was included in the calculation of photorates at each timestep. We integrated the ionization and dissociation cross sections of all atoms/molecules over the cosmic-ray-induced UV emission spectrum of H2. By analyzing the relative contribution of each gas phase species over time, we were able to identify the main contributors to the gas opacity in the midplane of protoplanetary disks.
Results. At 1 AU the gas opacity contributes up to 28.2% of the total opacity, including the dust contribution. At 3–5 AU the gas contribution is 14.5% of the total opacity, and at 7–8 AU it reaches a value of 12.2%. As expected, at 10–15 AU freeze-out of species causes the gas contribution to the total opacity to be very low (6%). The main contributors to the gas opacity are CO, CO2, S, SiO, and O2. OH also contributes to the gas opacity, but only at 10–15 AU.
Key words: astrochemistry / circumstellar matter / cosmic rays / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / circumstellar matter
© ESO, 2012
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