Volume 547, November 2012
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||18 October 2012|
Effects of helium enrichment in globular clusters
I. Theoretical plane with PGPUC stellar evolution code⋆
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Facultad de FísicaDepartamento de
Astronomía y Astrofísica, Av.
Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN, Brazil
3 The Milky Way Millennium Nucleus, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436, Macul, Santiago, Chile
4 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
5 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exploration of the Universe Division, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Accepted: 27 August 2012
Aims. Recently, the study of globular cluster (GC) color−magnitude diagrams (CMDs) has shown that some of them harbor multiple populations with different chemical compositions and/or ages. In the first case, the most common candidate is a spread in the initial helium abundance, but this quantity is difficult to determine spectroscopically due to the fact that helium absorption lines are not present in cooler stars, whereas for hotter GC stars gravitational settling of helium becomes important. As a consequence, indirect methods to determine the initial helium abundance among populations are necessary. For that reason, in this series of papers, we investigate the effects of a helium enrichment in populations covering the range of GC metallicities.
Methods. In this first paper, we present the theoretical evolutionary tracks, isochrones, and zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) loci calculated with the Princeton-Goddard-PUC (PGPUC) stellar evolutionary code, which has been updated with the most recent input physics and compared with other theoretical databases. The chemical composition grid covers 9 metallicities ranging from Z = 1.60 × 10-4 to 1.57 × 10-2(−2.25 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ −0.25), 7 helium abundances from Y = 0.230 to 0.370, and an alpha-element enhancement of [α/Fe] = 0.3.
Results. The effects of different helium abundances that can be observed in isochrones are: splits in the main sequence (MS), differences in the luminosity (L) and effective temperature (Teff) of the turn off point, splits in the sub giant branch being more prominent for lower ages or higher metallicities, splits in the lower red giant branch (RGB) being more prominent for higher ages or higher metallicities, differences in L of the RGB bump (with small changes in Teff), and differences in L at the RGB tip. At the ZAHB, when Y is increased there is an increase of L for low Teff, which is affected in different degrees depending on the age of the GC being studied. Finally, the ZAHB morphology distribution depending on the age explains how for higher GC metallicities a population with higher helium abundance could be hidden at the red ZAHB locus.
Key words: stars: evolution / stars: general / stars: horizontal-branch / globular clusters: general
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2012
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