Volume 533, September 2011
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||23 August 2011|
Populations III.1 and III.2 gamma-ray bursts: constraints on the event rate for future radio and X-ray surveys
IAG, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade
2 Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
3 KEK Theory Center and the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Tsukuba 305-0801, Japan
Accepted: 20 July 2011
Aims. We calculate the theoretical event rate of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of massive first-generation (Population III; Pop III) stars. The Pop III GRBs could be super-energetic with the isotropic energy up to Eiso ≳ 1055−57 erg, providing a unique probe of the high-redshift Universe.
Methods. We consider both the so-called Pop III.1 stars (primordial) and Pop III.2 stars (primordial but affected by radiation from other stars). We employ a semi-analytical approach that considers inhomogeneous hydrogen reionization and chemical evolution of the intergalactic medium.
Results. We show that Pop III.2 GRBs occur more than 100 times more frequently than Pop III.1 GRBs, and thus should be suitable targets for future GRB missions. Interestingly, our optimistic model predicts an event rate that is already constrained by the current radio transient searches. We expect ~10−104 radio afterglows above ~0.3 mJy on the sky with ~1 year variability and mostly without GRBs (orphans), which are detectable by ALMA, EVLA, LOFAR, and SKA, while we expect to observe maximum of N < 20 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 for Pop III.2 and N < 0.08 per year integrated over at z > 10 for Pop III.1 with EXIST, and N < 0.2 for Pop III.2 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 with Swift.
Key words: stars: Population III / gamma-ray burst: general / radio lines: general / X-rays: general
© ESO, 2011
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