This article has an erratum: [erratum]
Volume 524, December 2010
|Number of page(s)||33|
|Published online||19 November 2010|
The fundamental plane of EDisCS galaxies
Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik,
2 Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München, Germany
3 Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
4 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
5 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada
6 Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena CA91125, USA
7 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
8 Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
9 Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
10 Observatoire de Genève, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
11 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8111, Université Paris Diderot, 92125 Meudon Cedex, France
12 Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr.25/8, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
13 Osservatorio Astronomico, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
14 Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701, USA
15 INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
16 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Toulouse-Tarbes, CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 - Toulouse, France
17 The University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
18 Astronomy Department, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
19 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching, Germany
20 Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Accepted: 2 September 2010
We study the evolution of spectral early-type galaxies in clusters, groups, and the field up to redshift 0.9 using the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) dataset. We measure structural parameters (circularized half-luminosity radii Re, surface brightness Ie, and velocity dispersions σ) for 154 cluster and 68 field galaxies. On average, we achieve precisions of 10% in Re, 0.1 dex in log Ie, and 10% in σ. We sample ≈20% of cluster and ≈10% of field spectral early-type galaxies to an I band magnitude in a 1 arcsec radius aperture as faint as I1 = 22. We study the evolution of the zero point of the fundamental plane (FP) and confirm results in the literature, but now also for the low cluster velocity dispersion regime. Taken at face value, the mass-to-light ratio varies as Δlog M/LB = (−0.54 ± 0.01)z = (−1.61 ± 0.01)log (1 + z) in clusters, independent of their velocity dispersion. The evolution is stronger (Δlog M/LB = (−0.76 ± 0.01)z = (−2.27 ± 0.03)log (1 + z)) for field galaxies. A somewhat milder evolution is derived if a correction for incompleteness is applied. A rotation in the FP with redshift is detected with low statistical significance. The α and β FP coefficients decrease with redshift, or, equivalently, the FP residuals correlate with galaxy mass and become progressively negative at low masses. The effect is visible at z ≥ 0.7 for cluster galaxies and at lower redshifts z ≥ 0.5 for field galaxies. We investigate the size evolution of our galaxy sample. In agreement with previous results, we find that the half-luminosity radius for a galaxy with a dynamical orstellar mass of 2 × 1011 M⊙ varies as (1 + z) − 1.0 ± 0.3 for both cluster and field galaxies. At the same time, stellar velocity dispersions grow with redshift, as (1 + z)0.59 ± 0.10 at constant dynamical mass, and as (1 + z)0.34 ± 0.14 at constant stellar mass. The measured size evolution reduces to Re ∝ (1 + z) −0.5 ± 0.2 and σ ∝ (1 + z)0.41 ± 0.08, at fixed dynamical masses, and Re ∝ (1 + z) −0.68 ± 0.4 and σ ∝ (1 + z)0.19 ± 0.10, at fixed stellar masses, when the progenitor bias (PB, galaxies that locally are of spectroscopic early-type, but are not very old, disappear progressively from the EDisCS high-redshift sample; often these galaxies happen to be large in size) is taken into account. Taken together, the variations in size and velocity dispersion imply that the luminosity evolution with redshift derived from the zero point of the FP is somewhat milder than that derived without taking these variations into account. When considering dynamical masses, the effects of size and velocity dispersion variations almost cancel out. For stellar masses, the luminosity evolution is reduced to LB ∝ (1 + z)1.0 for cluster galaxies and LB ∝ (1 + z)1.67 for field galaxies. Using simple stellar population models to translate the observed luminosity evolution into a formation age, we find that massive (>1011 M⊙) cluster galaxies are old (with a formation redshift zf > 1.5) and lower mass galaxies are 3−4 Gyr younger, in agreement with previous EDisCS results from color and line index analyses. This confirms the picture of a progressive build-up of the red sequence in clusters with time. Field galaxies follow the same trend, but are ≈1 Gyr younger at a given redshift and mass. Taking into account the size and velocity dispersion evolution quoted above pushes all formation ages upwards by 1 to 4 Gyr.
Key words: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: formation / galaxies: fundamental parameters
Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal and La Silla, Chile, as part of the ESO LP 166.A-0162.
Appendices and Tables 1–3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2010
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