Volume 519, September 2010
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Published online||06 September 2010|
Molecular gas chemistry in AGN*
II. High-resolution imaging of SiO emission in NGC 1068: shocks or XDR?
Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN)-Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII 3, 28014-Madrid, Spain e-mail: [s.gburillo;a.usero;a.fuente]@oan.es
2 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain e-mail: email@example.com
3 Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Department of Radio and Space Science with Onsala Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, 439 94 Onsala, Sweden e-mail: email@example.com
5 Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire de Grenoble, 38406 St. Martin d'Hères, France e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
7 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 7 May 2010
Context. This paper is part of a multi-species survey of line emission from the molecular gas in the circum-nuclear disk (CND) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Unlike in other active galaxies, the intensely star-forming regions in NGC 1068 and the CND can be resolved with current instrumentation. This makes this galaxy an optimal test-bed to probe the effects of AGN on the molecular medium at ~100 pc scales.
Aims. Single-dish observations have provided evidence that the abundance of silicon monoxide (SiO) in the CND of NGC 1068 is enhanced by 3–4 orders of magnitude with respect to the values typically measured in quiescent molecular gas in the Galaxy. We aim at unveiling the mechanism(s) underlying the SiO enhancement.
Methods. We have imaged the emission of the SiO(2-1) (86.8 GHz) and CN(2-1) (226.8 GHz) lines in NGC 1068 at ~150 pc and 60 pc spatial resolution with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI). We have also obtained complementary IRAM 30 m observations of HNCO and methanol (CH3OH) lines. These species are known as tracers of shocks in the Galaxy.
Results. SiO is detected in a disk of ~400 pc size around the AGN. SiO abundances in the CND of ~(1–5) × 10-9 are about 1-2 orders of magnitude above those measured in the starburst ring. The overall abundance of CN in the CND is high: ~(0.2–1) × 10-7. The abundances of SiO and CN are enhanced at the extreme velocities of gas associated with non-circular motions close to the AGN (r < 70 pc). On average, HNCO/SiO and CH3OH/SiO line ratios in the CND are similar to those measured in prototypical shocked regions in our Galaxy. Yet the strength and abundance of CN in NGC 1068 can be explained neither by shocks nor by photon-dominated region (PDR) chemistry. Abundances measured for CN and SiO and the correlation of CN/CO and SiO/CO ratios with hard X-ray irradiation suggest that the CND of NGC 1068 has become a giant X-ray-dominated region (XDR).
Conclusions. The extreme properties of molecular gas in the circum-nuclear molecular disk of NGC 1068 result from the interplay between different processes directly linked to nuclear activity. The results presented here highlight in particular the footprint of shocks and X-ray irradiation on the properties of molecular gas in this Seyfert. Whereas XDR chemistry offers a simple explanation for CN and SiO in NGC 1068, the relevance of shocks deserves further scrutiny. The inclusion of dust grain chemistry would help solve the controversy regarding the abundances of other molecular species, like HCN, which are under-predicted by XDR models.
Key words: galaxies: individual: NGC 1068 / galaxies: ISM / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / galaxies: nuclei / galaxies: active / radio lines: ISM
© ESO, 2010
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