Volume 519, September 2010
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||08 September 2010|
Sub-Keplerian accretion onto circumstellar disks
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands e-mail: email@example.com
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 13 May 2010
Context. Models of the formation, evolution and photoevaporation of circumstellar disks are an essential ingredient in many theories of the formation of planetary systems. The ratio of disk mass over stellar mass in the circumstellar phase of a disk is for a large part determined by the angular momentum of the original cloud core from which the system was formed. While full 3D or 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamical models of accretion onto the disk automatically treat all aspects of angular momentum, this is not so trivial for 1D and semi-2D viscous disk models.
Aims. Since 1D and semi-2D disk models are still very useful for long-term evolutionary modelling of disks with relatively little numerical effort, we investigate how the 2D nature of accretion affects the formation and evolution of the disk in such models. A proper treatment of this problem requires a correction for the sub-Keplerian velocity at which accretion takes place.
Methods. We develop an update of our semi-2D time-dependent disk evolution model to properly treat the effects of sub-Keplerian accretion. The new model also accounts for the effects of the vertical extent of the disk on the accretion streamlines from the envelope.
Results. The disks produced with the new method are smaller than those obtained previously, but their mass is mostly unchanged. The new disks are a few degrees warmer in the outer parts, so they contain less solid CO. Otherwise, the results for ices are unaffected. The 2D treatment of the accretion results in material accreting at larger radii, so a smaller fraction comes close enough to the star for amorphous silicates to be thermally annealed into crystalline form. The lower crystalline abundances thus predicted correspond more closely to observed abundances than did earlier model predictions. We argue that thermal annealing followed by radial mixing must be responsible for at least part of the observed crystalline material.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / circumstellar matter / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks
© ESO, 2010
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