Volume 514, May 2010
|Number of page(s)||20|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||20 May 2010|
J0454-0309: evidence of a strong lensing fossil group falling into a poor galaxy cluster*
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 Leiden, The Netherlands
3 University of Tuorla Observatory, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
4 Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
Accepted: 4 February 2010
Aims. We have discovered a strong lensing fossil group (J0454) projected near the well-studied cluster MS0451-0305. Using the large amount of available archival data, we compare J0454 to normal groups and clusters. A highly asymmetric image configuration of the strong lens enables us to study the substructure of the system.
Methods. We used multicolour Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Megaprime imaging, together with Keck spectroscopy to identify member galaxies. A VLT/FORS2 spectrum was taken to determine the redshifts of the brightest elliptical and the lensed arc. Using HST/ACS images, we determined the group's weak lensing signal and modelled the strong lens system. This is the first time that a fossil group is analysed with lensing methods. The X-ray luminosity and temperature were derived from XMM-Newton data.
Results. J0454 is located at z = 0.26, with a gap of 2.5 mag between the brightest and second brightest galaxies within half the virial radius. Outside a radius of 1.5 Mpc, we find two filaments extending over 4 Mpc, and within we identify 31 members spectroscopically and 33 via the red sequence with i < 22 mag. They segregate into spirals ( = 590 km s-1) and a central concentration of ellipticals ( = 480 km s-1), establishing a morphology-density relation. Weak lensing and cluster richness relations yield consistent values of r200 = 810-850 kpc and M200 = (0.75-0.90) × 1014 . The brightest group galaxy (BGG) is inconsistent with the dynamic centre of J0454. It strongly lenses a galaxy at z = 2.1 ± 0.3, and we model the lens with a pseudo-isothermal elliptical mass distribution. A high external shear, and a discrepancy between the Einstein radius and the weak lensing velocity dispersion requires that the BGG must be offset from J0454's dark halo centre by at least 90-130 kpc. The X-ray halo is offset by 24 ± 16 kpc from the BGG, shows no signs of a cooling flow and can be fit by a single β-model. With LX = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 1043 erg s-1 J0454 falls onto standard cluster scaling relations, but appears cooler (T = 1.1 ± 0.1 keV) than expected (T ~ 2.0 keV). Taken all together, these data indicate that J0454 consists of two systems, a sparse cluster and an infalling fossil group, where the latter seeds the brightest cluster galaxy. An alternative to the sparse cluster could be a filament projected along the line of sight mimicking a cluster, with galaxies streaming towards the fossil group.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: clusters: individual: J0454-0309 / galaxies: formation
This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile (ESO DDT Programme 282.A-5066); based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (programme #9836) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.
© ESO, 2010
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