Volume 505, Number 3, October III 2009
|Page(s)||1167 - 1182|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||18 August 2009|
The circumstellar disc in the Bok globule CB 26
Multi-wavelength observations and modelling of the dust disc and envelope
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstr. 15, 24098 Kiel, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Mail code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
4 JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
5 School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK
6 Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, CNRS/UJF UMR 5571, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
7 Astronomy Department, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley CA 94720-3411, USA
8 California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
9 Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USA
10 Harvard-Smithonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA02138, USA
Accepted: 6 July 2009
Context. Circumstellar discs are expected to be the nursery of planets. Grain growth within such discs is the first step in the planet formation process. The Bok globule CB 26 harbours such a young disc.
Aims. We present a detailed model of the edge-on circumstellar disc and its envelope in the Bok globule CB 26.
Methods. The model is based on HST near-infrared maps in the , and K bands, OVRO and SMA radio maps at 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 2.7 mm, and the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 0.9 to 3 mm. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Caltech Submilimeter Observatory are also part of our analysis. Using the self-consistent radiative transfer code MC3D, the model we construct is able to discriminate between parameter sets and dust properties of both envelope and disc.
Results. We find that the data are fit by a disc that has an inner hole with a radius of 45±5 AU. Based on a dust model including silicate and graphite, the maximum grain size needed to reproduce the spectral millimetre index is 2.5 . Features seen in the near-infrared images, dominated by scattered light, can be described as a result of a rotating envelope.
Conclusions. Successful employment of ISM dust in both the disc and envelope hint that grain growth may not yet play a significant role for the appearance of this system. A large inner hole implies that CB 26 is a circumbinary disc.
Key words: circumstellar matter / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks / radiative transfer / stars: formation / stars: individual: CB 26
© ESO, 2009
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