First stars XII. Abundances in extremely metal-poor turnoff stars, and comparison with the giants *,**,***
CIFIST Marie Curie Excellence Team
2 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot; Place Jules Janssen 92190 Meudon, France e-mail: [Piercarlo.Bonifacio;Monique.Spite;Roger.Cayrel;Vanessa.Hill;Francois.Spite;Patrick.Francois; Hans.Ludwig;Elisabetta.Caffau]@obspm.fr
3 Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy e-mail: email@example.com
4 Laboratoire Cassiopée UMR 6202, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France e-mail: Vanessa.Hilla@oca.eu
5 GRAAL, Université de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France e-mail: Bertrand.Plez@graal.univ-montp2.fr
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, Box 515, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
7 Las Cumbres Observatory, Goleta, CA 93117, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
8 The Niels Bohr Institute, Astronomy Group, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark e-mail: [ja;birgitta]@astro.ku.dk
9 Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, 38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Spain e-mail: email@example.com
10 IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Depto. de Astronomia, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900, Brazil e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
11 Department of Physics & Astronomy, CSCE: Center for the Study of Cosmic Evolution, and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA e-mail: email@example.com
12 European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85749 Garching bei München, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 15 March 2009
Context. The detailed chemical abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are key guides to understanding the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Most existing data, however, treat giant stars that may have experienced internal mixing later.
Aims. We aim to compare the results for giants with new, accurate abundances for all observable elements in 18 EMP turnoff stars.
Methods. VLT/UVES spectra at R ~ 45 000 and S/N ~ 130 per pixel ( 330-1000 nm) are analysed with OSMARCS model atmospheres and the TURBOSPECTRUM code to derive abundances for C, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, and Ba.
Results. For Ca, Ni, Sr, and Ba, we find excellent consistency with our earlier sample of EMP giants, at all metallicities. However, our abundances of C, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn and Co are ~0.2 dex larger than in giants of similar metallicity. Mg and Si abundances are ~0.2 dex lower (the giant [Mg/Fe] values are slightly revised), while Zn is again ~0.4 dex higher than in giants of similar [Fe/H] (6 stars only).
Conclusions. For C, the dwarf/giant discrepancy could possibly have an astrophysical cause, but for the other elements it must arise from shortcomings in the analysis. Approximate computations of granulation (3D) effects yield smaller corrections for giants than for dwarfs, but suggest that this is an unlikely explanation, except perhaps for C, Cr, and Mn. NLTE computations for Na and Al provide consistent abundances between dwarfs and giants, unlike the LTE results, and would be highly desirable for the other discrepant elements as well. Meanwhile, we recommend using the giant abundances as reference data for Galactic chemical evolution models.
Key words: Galaxy: abundances / Galaxy: halo / Galaxy: evolution / stars: abundances / stars: population II / stars: supernovae: general
Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Large Programme “First Stars”, ID 165.N-0276; P.I.: R. Cayrel, and Programme 078.B-0238; P.I.: M. Spite).
© ESO, 2009